Adonis

Adonis ili Adon (grč. Ἄδωνις, Adônis) u grčkoj mitologiji bog je žita, smrti i ponovnog rođenja. Adonisovo ime dolazi od hebrejske riječi adonai koja je značila "bog". Grci su taj lik preuzeli u svojoj mitologiji, u etruščanskoj mitologiji zvao se Atunis, a u semitskoj Tammuz.

Adonisovo rođenje

Postoji nekoliko izvora o njegovu rođenju. Najčešća je ona da je Afrodita nagovorila Miru da prevari i počini incest sa svojim ocem Tijom, kraljem Smirne ili Sirije. Kad je to otac otkrio, uzeo je nož u ruke i krenuo na svoju kćer. Ona je pobjegla, a Afrodita ju je pretvorila u drvo mirhe, mirisne smole. Kad je njezin otac odaslao strijelu u to drvo ili, prema drugom izvoru, kad je vepar zabio kljove u nj, Adonis je rođen iz drveta. Ovaj mit dokazuje i porijeklo legende o Adonisu, budući da takvo drvo nije raslo u tadašnjoj Grčkoj.

Myrrh

Smirnu se trgovalo po deva karavane kopnom od područja proizvodnje u južnoj Arabiji strane Nabatejci njihovom glavnom gradu Petra, od kojih je distribuirana diljem Mediterana.

Adonisovi vrtovi

Adonis is the son of Myrrha and her father Cinyras. Myrrha turned into a myrrh tree and Lucina helped the tree to give birth to Adonis.

The patriarchal Hellenes sought a father for the god, and found him in Byblos and Cyprus, which scholars take to indicate the direction from which Adonis had come to the Greeks. Pseudo-Apollodorus, (Bibliotheke, 3.182) considered Adonis to be the son of Cinyras, of Paphos on Cyprus, and Metharme. According to pseudo-Apollodorus' Bibliotheke, Hesiod, in an unknown work that does not survive, made of him the son of Phoenix and the otherwise unidentified Alphesiboea.

In Cyprus, the cult of Adonis gradually superseded that of Cinyras. Hesiod made him the son of Phoenix, eponym of the Phoenicians, thus a figure of Phoenician origin; his association with Cyprus is not attested before the classical era.

The city Berytos (Beirut) in Lebanon was named after the daughter of Adonis and Aphrodite, Beroe. Both Dionysus and Poseidon fell in love with her. She would eventually marry Poseidon.

Adonia

Adonia (Greek: Ἀδώνια) or Feast of Adonis was an ancient festival mourning the death of Adonis.

One of the features of the holiday was the creation of "Gardens of Adonis". This involved sowing seeds of quickly-germinating plants- wheat, barley, lettuce, fennel- in shallow baskets, bowls or even in shards of clay. Tended by the women, who watered them daily, the plants grew rapidly but had shallow root systems. Images on Greek vases show the women carrying these little gardens up ladders to the rooftops, the unique site for the Adonia. At the end of eight days the pots of greenery were thrown into the ocean or a stream.

The Gardens of Adonis (1888) by John Reinhard Weguelin: the women bear the container-grown plants and festal rose garlands to dispose of in the sea, while a girl plays the special aulos (a gingras) associated with the festival.

Adonis - my lord

Adonis is the Hellenized form of the Phoenician word "adoni", meaning "my lord". It is believed that the cult of Adonis was known to the Greeks from around the sixth century B.C., but it is unquestionable that they came to know it through contact with Cyprus. Around this time, the cult of Adonis is noted in the Book of Ezekiel in Jerusalem, though under the Babylonian name Tammuz.


Route for the Myrrha myth's spread: the red is certain, the orange uncertain.

Protiv svetoga drveća

Da, stidjet ćete se zbog hrastova što ih sad obožavate i crvenjet ćete zbog gajeva u kojima sad uživate. Jer, bit ćete poput hrasta osušena lišća i poput gaja u kojem vode nema. Junak će biti kučina, a iskra djelo njegovo, zajedno će izgorjeti, a nikoga da ugasi. - Izaija

Protiv Adonisovih vrtova

U onaj će dan gradovi tvoji biti napušteni, kao što bjehu napušteni hivijski i amorejski kad ih ostaviše pred Izraelcima, i opustjet će, jer si zaboravio Boga svog spasenja i nisi se spomenuo Stijene svoje snage. Stog' i sadiš ljupke biljke i strane presađuješ mladice; u dan kad ih posadiš, one izrastu, a ujutro procvatu tvoje sadnice, al' propada žetva u dan nevolje, u dan boli neizlječive. - Izaija