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Argonautica is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from remote Colchis. Their heroic adventures and Jason's relationship with the dangerous Colchian princess / Sorceress Medea.

The Argo, by Konstantinos Volanakis

Jason was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the sorceress Medea. He was also the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes, through his mother's side.

Jason has being the mythical founder of the city of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia.

Golden Fleece figuring as a solar emblem.


Golden Fleece

Through mediation of the God Hermes, Phrixus and Helle fled from their father's and stephmother's court, in Boeotia, flying on a golden ram. As they flew over Tracie, Helle leaned over and looked down, lost her balance and fell, which is why that area of the sea has been called the Hellespont (= where Helle drowned) ever since.

Phrixus arrived safely in Colchis were he offered the ram to Zeus and gave the Golden Fleece to king Aeetes who had received him well. The precious Golden Fleece was hung on an oak tree in the sacred grove of Ares, where a fierce dragon kept perpetual guard over it.


When Jason's father had been thrown of his throne by his half brother Pelias, he sent Jason to the wise Centaur Chiron, in order to raise the boy in safety.

When Jason was twenty years of age he came to king Pelias in the city of Iolcus and claimed the throne king Pelias had illegally taken from Jason's father. As a ruse the king promised him the throne as soon as Jason would bring him the famous Golden Fleece, owned by the king of Colchis.

The voyage of the Argonauts


Jason ordered a ship to be built with 50 oars. The ship was so perfect that it had in that time no match. The ship could actually talk and had the gift of foreseeing, thanks to a piece of wood from the holy oak of Dodone, a gift of the goddess Athena. The ship was very fast and was therfore named Argo, argos being Greek for fast.


The crew of the Argo consisted of  Greek hero's and even sons of gods. The steersman was Tiphys. There were, amongst others, the musician Orpheus, the seer Idmon, and Mopsus, Heracles, Hylas, Idas, Theseus, Peleus, Amphiaraus from Argos, Acastus, Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux), Periclymenus (son of Neleus), Peleas and his brother Telamon.

The voyage

The voyage of the Argo is depicted on a map, drawn according to the epic "Argonauts" by Apolloniusof Rhodos.

The first stop was on the isle of Lemnos, where the found only women as all men had been slaughtered earlier. The Argonauts lay with the women of the island and thus reintroduced a male element into the population.

Their next halt was Samotracie and after that they sailed through the Hellespont to arrive in Kyzikos, where they were received hospitably. When the time came for them to depart a head wind forced them back again and this time the people from Kyzikos mistook them for invaders and a fierce battle followed. When the mistake was discovered there was a reconciliation and the deaths were honoured on both sides.

Now the Argo sailed along the shores of Mysia, coming to the land where the soothsayer Phineas dwelt. They rid him of the Harpies, fierce birds that had stolen the food of the blind Phineas and who had left him almost starving, nearly to death. Out of gratitude he explained to them how they should try to sail through the Symplegades or "Clashing Rocks"

The Symplegades were two huge cliffs, reaching as high as the sky itself and not firmly fixed in the sea. Every so often they clashed together with such terrible speed and power, that they were certainly to crush any ship foolhardedly enough to venture between them. Phineas had advised the Argonauts to release a dove to fly between the rocks as to test the situation. The dove came through all right and only its tail was slightly harmed. The Argo thus got up as much speed as it possibly could and managed to pass between the Clashing Rocks losing only a small part of its stern. After that time the two rocks fused together and never moved again. Others say that the rocks  moved outward once more and stayed still ever after.

When the Argo finally reached Colchis (at the east coast of the Black Sea), king Aeetes promised to give the companions the Golden Fleece, on condition that Jason first accomplished two difficult feats: first he had to yoke two fire breathing bulls with bronze hooves, and then he was to sow dragon's teeth in a field and deal with the armed warriors who would spring up like plants.

In performing these feats he was helped by Medea, the king's daughter and a sorceress, who had fallen in love with Jason. And when the king finally denied Jason the Golden Fleece, thus going back on his word, she helped him to steal it, by setting a charm of sleep on the dragon.

The voyage of the Argo back to Greece has been described variously. Most accounts agree that after crossing the Black Sea, the Argo sailed up the Danube, entered the Adriatic, and then along the rivers Po and Rhone, came to Circe's island, off the coast of Tyrrhenia.

Then they sailed along the island of the Sirens, sea spirits with the heads of beautiful women and the bodies of birds. They would lure ships on to dangerous rocks by enchanting the sailors with their songs. The Argonauts escaped from their bewitching song thanks to Orpheus, who played his lyre and sang of the beauties of his own country so loudly that he drowned out the Sirens. He sang of home and the beloved waiting there for the sailors, thus strengthening their wish to sail home.

They sailed successfully between Scylla and Charibdis, evil sea spirits, who lived on either side of the Straits of Sicily. Scylla would roll rocks down in order to crush passing ships, while Charybdis was the motive power beneath a terrible whirlpool, which struck fear into the hearts of sailors and sucked their vessels down to destruction.

Then the Argonauts called at the island of the Phaeacians, the coast of Libya, then heading towards Crete.

On Crete, at that time, there was a gigantic bronze (robotic) creature, called Talos, whom the god Hephaestus had made as a guardian for the kingdom of Minos. He would throw huge boulders at ships he conceived to be hostile. Medea, however caused his death by her sorcery.

When the Argonauts finally returned in triumph to Iolcus, king Pelias, after receiving the Golden Fleece, broke his promise and refused to abdicate in Jason's favour. In fact he had killed earlier Jason's entire family. Then Medea helped him again and, by her sorcery, made Pelias' daughters kill their father.


Argonautica's routes from Iolcus to Aegina


Brygean Islands The Argonauts and Colchians reached the Adriatic Sea by a fabled branch of the Ister River. Jason and Medea murdered her brother Apsyrtus on one of the Brygean Islands. His Colchian followers later settled around the Adriatic and their descendents still remain there, including the 'Apsyrtians' on the Brygean Islands. Other Colchians settled in Illyria (near the tombs of Cadmus and Harmonia, modern day Pola) and the Ceraunian Mountains.
Electris Island An island near the mouth of the Eridanus. Its exact location is unknown to modern scholars. Herodotus (3.115) and Strabo (5.1.9) considered it imaginary. The Argonauts hid out here while the leaderless Colchian fleet disbanded, following the death of Apsyrtus.
Hyllus A city on the Dalmatian coast. Its exact location is unknown to modern scholars but somewhere near modern Šibenik. It is home of the Hylleans, who proved friendly to the Argonauts after the death of Apsyrtus. In gratitude for their kindness, Jason endowed the Hylleans with a tripod, originally a gift to him from Apollo, which protects their country against invaders to this very day. They buried it for safe-keeping deep under the city of Hyllus, where it still lies hidden.
The city, country and people took their name from Hyllus, a son of Heracles and the water nymph Melite.
Libya The Argo was beached in the notorious shallows of the Syrtis (Gulf of Sidra) after a north wind swept them from Greek waters. The Argonauts here resigned themselves to death until three nymphs, the guardians of Libya, appeared, advising them to carry the Argo overland. Arriving thus at 'Lake Triton', they encountered the Hesperides, whose garden had been ravaged by Heracles just the day before. Canthus, one of the Argonauts, is subsequently killed by the son of Garamas, a native shepherd and son of Apollo. Another Argonaut, Mopsus, dies from snake bite. A third, Euphemus, receives directions and a clod of earth from Triton. The Garamantes, a Libyan pastoral tribe, are descended from Garamas (though this is not explicitly stated by Apollonius). The snake that killed Mopsus was descended from the blood of the Gorgon's head that dripped onto the soil when Perseus once flew past. The clod of earth, once dropped into the sea, would become the island Calliste (Thera), from where Greek migrants would one day colonize Libya. The harbour in Lake Triton, where Argo rested before entering the sea, is called Argo Harbour and signs of the visit are still visible there to this day.




Mopsus Apollo's son, skilled in the augury of birds, from Thessalian Titaresia. He is an advisor to Jason. The seer Mopsus learns from the omens that they are meant to establish a cult of the gods (Rhea / Cybele). He dies from snake bite in Libya.


Egypt was the final action of Argonauts?

The stranding of the Argonauts on the Libyan coast, their carrying of Argo across the desert and the deaths there of Mopsus and Canthus

The island of Thera was the mother city of Cyrene. Aegina was once home to the Argonauts Peleus and Telamon, exiled thence for murdering their brother. The island of Anaphe is where the Aitia of Callimachus begins with a tale of the Argonauts, and his final action is in Alexandria.

Apollonius of Rhodes

We suggest; The final aition of the Argonauts was in Egypt

Library of Alexandria

The famous burning of the Library of Alexandria, including the incalculable loss of ancient works, has become a symbol of the irretrievable loss of public knowledge.

Paganism was made illegal by an edict of the Emperor Theodosius I in AD 391.

The temples of Alexandria were closed by Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria in AD 391. The historian Socrates of Constantinople describes that all pagan temples in Alexandria were destroyed, including the Serapeum.

Story of Mopsus


Mopsus was one of two seers among the Argonauts, and was said to understand the language of birds, having learned augury from Apollo. He had competed at the funeral-games for Jason's father and was among the Lapiths who fought the Centaurs. While fleeing across the Libyan desert from angry sisters of the slain Gorgon Medusa, Mopsus died from the bite of a viper that had grown from a drop of Medusa's blood. Medea was unable to save him, even by magical means. The Argonauts buried him with a monument by the sea, and a temple was later erected on the site.

Musaeus of Athens

According to Artapanus, (Eusebius, PrEv 9.27.4) he recounts that the Greeks called Moses Musaeus and that he taught Orpheus, who was widely considered to be the father of Greek culture.

In 450 BC, the playwright Euripides in his play Rhesus describes him thus, "Musaeus, too, thy holy citizen, of all men most advanced in lore." In 380 BC, Plato says in his Ion that poets are inspired by Orpheus and Musaeus but the greater are inspired by Homer. In the Protagoras, Plato says that Musaeus was a hierophant and a prophet. In the Apology, Socrates says, "What would not a man give if he might converse with Orpheus and Musaeus and Hesiod and Homer? Nay, if this be true, let me die again and again." According to Diodorus Siculus, Musaeus was the son of Orpheus, according to Tatian he was the disciple of Orpheus, but according to Diogenes Laertius he was the son of Eumolpus. Alexander Polyhistor, Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius say he was the teacher of Orpheus. Aristotle quotes him in Book VIII of his Politics: "Song is to mortals of all things the sweetest." According to Diogenes Laertius he died and was buried at Phalerum, with the epitaph: "Musaeus, to his sire Eumolpus dear, in Phalerean soil lies buried here." According to Pausanias, he was buried on the Mouseion Hill, south-west of the Acropolis, where there was a statue dedicated to a Syrian. For this and other reasons, Artapanus of Alexandria, Alexander Polyhistor, Numenius of Apamea, and Eusebius identify Musaeus with Moses the Jewish lawbringer. Musaeus is singled out in Book 6 of The Aeneid, as someone who the souls of Elysium particularly looked up to. - Musaeus of Athens


Zalmoxis is a supposed divinity of the Getae and Dacians (a people of the lower Danube), mentioned by Herodotus in his Histories Book IV, 93–96, written before 425 BC.

According to Jordanes's Getica, he was a learned man, philosopher, before whom, two other learned men existed, by the names of Zeuta and Deceneus.

Herodotus asserts that Zalmoxis was originally a human being, a slave who converted the Thracians to his beliefs. The Greeks of the Hellespont and the Black Sea tell that Zalmoxis was a slave of Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchos, on the island of Samos. After being liberated, he gathered huge wealth and, once rich, went back to his homeland. Thracians lived simple hard lives. Zalmoxis had lived among the wisest of Greeks, such as Pythagoras, and had been initiated into Ionian life and the Eleusinian Mysteries. He built a banquet hall, and received the chiefs and his fellow countrymen at a banquet. He taught that neither his guests nor their descendants would ever die, but instead would go to a place where they would live forever in a complete happiness. He then dug an underground residence. When it was finished, he disappeared from Thrace, living for three years in his underground residence. The Thracians missed him and wept fearing him dead. The fourth year, he came back among them and thus they believed what Zalmoxis had told them.

Zalmoxis is related to Pythagoras, stating that he founded a mystical cult;. This theory may be found in Eliade's work. Zalmoxis is a Christ-like figure who dies and is resurrected. - Zalmoxis


On the west side of the Black Sea, there is, according to ancient geography, a region which was called "Moesia," signifying the land of the Moses-ites, and the people of which were called Moesi, or Mosesites. These people had such great reverence for a person whom they called Zal-moxis, whom Herodotus, the father of history, supposed to be their God, and concerning whom he concludes his account as follows: “Zalmoxis must have lived many years before Pythagoras; whether therefore he was a man ot a deity of the Getae, enough has been said of him." T. R.
Howlett says, "Zalmoxis, whom Herodotus supposed them to worship as a god, is without doubt Moses; Zal signifying "chief," or "leader," while Moxis and Aloses are but the Greek for the Hebrew Mosie, which is also rendered Moses in our tongue.

Parion Mysia

Located near Lampsacus, it was a colony probably founded by Eretria and Paros.

Their first mention is by Homer, in his list of Trojans allies in the Iliad, and according to whom the Mysians fought in the Trojan War on the side of Troy, under the command of Chromis and Ennomus the Augur, and were lion-hearted spearmen who fought with their bare hands.

Herodotus in his Histories wrote that the Mysians were brethren of the Carians and the Lydians, originally Lydian colonists in their country, and as such, they had the right to worship alongside their relative nations in the sanctuary dedicated to the Carian Zeus in Mylasa. He also mentions a movement of Mysians and associated peoples from Asia into Europe still earlier than the Trojan War, wherein the Mysians and Teucrians had crossed the Bosphorus into Europe and, after conquering all of Thrace, pressed forward till they came to the Ionian Sea, while southward they reached as far as the river Peneus.

Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages. As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group. However, a passage in Athenaeus suggests that the Mysian language was akin to the barely attested Paeonian language of Paeonia, north of Macedon.

Parion-Mysia coin - Kuntillet Ajrud


Alexandria Jewish about Moses

Jewish men of letters who lived in Alexandria thay claimed for Moses the merit of having given to Egypt, Phoenicia, and Hellas all their culture. He taught the Jews the letters, and they then became the teachers of the Phoenicians and, indirectly, of the Greeks, says Eupolemus.

Jewish historians who lived at Alexandria, such as Eupolemus, attributed to Moses the feat of having taught the Phoenicians their alphabet, similar to legends of Thoth. Artapanus of Alexandria explicitly identified Moses with the Greek figure Musaeus (whom he called "the teacher of Orpheus").



Faraon - Perun - Pharos


“The Egyptian title PHRA = PHARAOH, is simply the word RA with the article P or PH prefixed signfying THE SUN. “

 " Egipatska titula FRA = FARAON, jdnostavno je riječ RA sa dodatkom P ili F kao prefiksima značenja SUNCE."

“PHARAOH (Φαραώ)…In inscriptions of the Old Kingdom an expression Pr-‘o, ‘great house,’… In old Coptic (of the 2nd cent. AD) the descendent of the Pr-‘o is simply ΠEPO, ‘the king,’…”

 "FARAON (Φαραώ)…U natpisima Starog Kraljevstva izraz Pr-'o je 'veličanstvena kuća'...U starom koptskom (od 2. v. n. e.) potomci od Pr-'o su jednostavno PERO, 'kralj,'..."

Egipatsko PHRA (grčki: Φαραώ) = RA = SUNCE

Sanskritsko PERU = VATRA, SUNCE

Hieroglifi su preuzeti iz knjige "Egyptian Civilization: Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology" by L.A. Waddell, Luzak & Co, London, 1930, p. 181.

Slika stećka preuzeta iz knjige "Stećci, laž i bogumili", str. 219.

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