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Aryan

Y-DNA R1a-Z93

 

Vedic period, c. 1500 - 500 BC

Scholars consider Vedic civilisation to have been a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan (Indus Valley Civilisation) cultures. - Vedic period


Aryans and early India

After Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro declined the political center of India shifted from the Indus to Ganges valley. The population increased from about 87 million to 225 million between 4000 B.C. and the time of Christ, when four fifth of the world's population lived under the Roman, Chinese Han and Indian Gupta empires. The population of India grew only slightly between 300 B.C. and the 18th century.

Around 1000 B.C. the Ganges plain was still covered with virgin forests. By 300 B.C. there were barely any trees left. Around 300 B.C., the Ganges valley was perhaps the most populated region on earth, with an estimated population of between 25 and 50 million people.

Little is known about India's early history. Some scholars believe that ancient Sanskrit historical may have been destroyed completely on purpose for some unknown reason. Others believe that they were never written down because of the Hindu belief in reincarnation and the cyclical rhythms of nature. Why record history if the events are only going to happen again, perhaps the reasoning went.

The Aryans left behind little physical evidence of their existence. They didn't build great buildings or leave significant archeological sites, What we know about ancient Hindu-Aryan civilization is based largely on the holy Vedic texts, heroic myths written in second half of first millennium B.C.

Aryans

The Aryans were a loosely federated, semi-nomadic herdsmen people who spread both east and west from Central Asia, taking their sky gods with them. The Aryans first settled in the Punjab and later moved on to the Ganges Valley. They are also ancestors of Persians, Teutons and Celts.

Aryans are defined as early speakers of Vedic Sanskrit, an Indo-European language that provided the basis for all the languages in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh as well as the majority those in Europe.

Based on linguistic evidence Aryans are believed to have originated from the steppes of Central Asia. They were led by a warrior aristocracy whose legendary deeds are recorded in the Rig Veda. The term arya in Sanskrit means “noble." The Aryans introduced the horse'drawn chariot, the Hindu religion and sacred books known as the Vedas to present-day India.

The term “Aryan” has been used by European writers since 1835 but fell into disfavor in the mid 20th century because of its association with Nazi propaganda, which described the people of northern and central Europe as being the purest representatives of an “Aryan race." Today, historians and ethnologist who discuss Aryans make it very clear they are taking about speakers of Aryan languages and are not taking about Aryan blood, hair, eyes or other features.

Aryan Invaders

Between 2000 and 1000 B.C. successive waves of Aryans migrated to India from Central Asia (as well as eastern Europe, western Russia and Persia) . The Aryans invaded India between 1500 and 1200 B.C., around the same time they moved into the Mediterranean and western Europe. At this time the Indus civilization had already been destroyed or was moribund.

The Aryans success can partly be attributed to the superiority of their technology, particularly weapon technology, over the people they conquered, namely the Dravidian people in South Asia. The Aryans had advanced bronze weapons, later iron weapons and horse drawn chariots with light spoked wheels. The native people the conquered at best had oxcarts and often only stone-age weapons.

Around 1500 BC, Aryan charioteers from the steppes of northern Iran conquered India and the founders of the Shang Dynasty (the first Chinese ruling authority) arrived in China on chariots and set up the world's first state.

The light-skinned Aryans drove many of the original dark-skinned Dravidian inhabitants of northern India south and are believed to have conquered the Indus River civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

Aryan Settlers

The Aryans settled in the Punjab and wrote hymns to natural deities of which 1028 were recorded in the Vedic verses. The Brahmanas were written between 800 and 600 B.C. to explain the hymns and speculate about their meaning.

Aryan settlers cultivated some wheat and barely but they were primarily horsemen and cattle herders. They cleared small patches of forest and set up villages and small towns. They didn't occupy large towns or cites and didn't leave any great ruined cities behind.. They didn't really establish any towns of any size or practice settled farming until the Indian Iron Age beginning about 700 B.C.

Archeologists mark the arrival of the Aryan by the presence and distribution of their distinctive Painted Gray Ware pottery. The lands they occupied were called Aryavarta and they are described in some detail in the oldest Sanskrit literature, the chief source of information about them.

The Aryans were led by a hereditary king and were divided into five major tribes. They remained warriors. They fought against non-Aryans and fought one another. They even persuaded non-Aryans to help fight against other Aryan tribes. War itself was described as the “search for cows."

The Aryans were able to unite a wide variety of ethnic and linguistic groups under their integrated high culture but did not eliminate the rich diversity and variety that is still found in India today.

Aryans and Hinduism

The Hindu religion is thought to have originated with the Aryans. The Aryans were originally nature worshipers who revered a number of gods and believed that their gods represented forces of nature. Most of the important deities were male, including a celestial father and a king of gods who lit up the sun, exhaled the wind and knew the pathway of the birds. There is some evidence of tree worship. Some early Aryan structures appear to have been built around trees.

Brahmins, a priestly were the only people who could perform religious ceremonies based initially on knowledge that was passed down orally over the centuries. Their ability to memorize was quite extraordinary because the rituals they presided over were quite involved and complex. The hymns and knowledge associated with these rituals has survived intact since 1000 B.C.

Aryans that settled in the Punjab and wrote hymns to natural deities of which 1028 were recorded in the Verdic verses. The Brahmanas were written between 800 and 600 B.C. to explain the hymns and speculate about their meaning.

Among the differences between the early Aryan religion and Hinduism are: 1) Aryan religion had no icons and no personal relationships with a single supreme deity whereas Hinduism does; 2) Aryan offering were made for something in return while Hindus make offering as a sign of worship; 3) The Aryan gods rode chariots while Hindu ones ride mounted on their animals; and 4) nearly all the early Aryan gods were male while Hindus have male and female gods as well as ones with cobra heads and ones that are worshiped with phallic symbols.

Aryan Sacrifices

The Aryans conducted elaborate sacrifices and incorporated fire and an inebriating drink called soma ("Drink of Strength") into them. The sacrifices were often so complex and expensive only the upper classes could afford them. In royal sacrifices the king was sprinkled with soma and a horse was set free for year and then captured and sacrificed in the name of the queen to insure good health for the royal family.

In the early days cattle were sometimes sacrificed. The Vedas describe funerals in which a cow was slaughtered while mantras were chanted and the body of the animal was used to cover the human body on the funeral pyre, limb by limb, in a clear effort to create a double of the human body and direct negative energy into it. In most cases however it seems that milk, ghee and vegetable substance were offered up at ritual ceremonies rather than cows or any other animals.

Sacrifices were festive events meant to be enjoyed and bring fertility and prosperity. They were not intended to help people in the afterlife. Aryan religion was concerned mostly with the here and now not the hereafter. Some elements of the sacrifice though were identified with parts of the cosmos and the sacrifice was regarded as a re-enactment of creation.

Sometimes human sacrifices were held. The victims were usually criminals provided to the king or volunteers who hoped to gain quick trip to a better world. Animal sacrifices are largely a thing of the past. The ritual lives on the offerings of rice balls and marigold pedals left at temples.

Mixing of Indus, Aryan and Dravidian Beliefs

Hinduism and Hindu culture is believed to have originated from a intermixing of Aryan and Dravidian beliefs. It is believed that one reason there are so many gods and different customs in Hinduism is that is how the Aryan and Dravidian beliefs accommodated one another.

The source of Dravidian culture, is believed to be the ancient Indus Civilization, which flourished around 2000 B.C. in what is now Pakistan. Members of this civilization worshiped an earth goddess, similar to the Hindu goddess Shakti, and revered yogi-like male figures that surrounded themselves with animals and were worshiped with phallic symbols, suggesting Shiva. As is true in Hinduism today certain animals, such as bulls, and certain plants such as pipal trees, were held sacred.

Scores of stone phallic, vulva and bull figures have been found in Indus ruins and some archaeologists and historians present them as evidence this culture may have been the precursor to Hinduism because the bull was mount of the Hindu god Shiva and the phallic symbols' resembled the lingams (phallic emblems) used to worship Shiva.

One three sided Indus seal that was unearthed depicts a squatting god surrounded by animals which, some scholars say, may have been a forerunner of Shiva. Some of the most beautifully carved images on seals are of cattle, which suggests a link to cattle worship. Some tokens show humans bowing before a pipal tree shading figures that may be deities. Pipal trees symbolize fertility and protection in Hinduism.

The Mother Goddess did not become a major part of Hinduism until relatively late. It is believed that she existed on the fringe in the early years of Hinduism and became incorporated when the time was right. The Shiva-like practices were absorbed at a much earlier time.

Transition From the Aryan Religion to Hinduism

As Aryans spread throughout India, they absorbed legends and beliefs of the people they conquered, including ideas about karma, reincarnation and strict laws that grew into the caste system. The Brahmanas or Priestlies , written between 1000 and 800 B.C., gave more and more power to Brahma priests at the expense of the old Vedic Gods. The Upanishads , written between 800 and 600 B.C., addressed reincarnation and karma and the unity of the soul with the cosmos.

About the same time the idea of reincarnation gained importance the status of religious ascetics was elevated. Ascetics were perceived as people who sought religious holiness by tapping into the forces of the universe and aimed to escape the endless series of deaths and rebirth of reincarnation to attain moksha (Hindu nirvana). This idea made religious life accessible to everybody not just the Brahmins.

At the same time this was occurring there was a movement against the power of the Brahmas, the grip of the caste system and the emphasis on sacrifices. Buddhism and Jainism grew out of this movement. Beginning in the 3rd century B.C. Hinduism went into decline and was largely replaced by Buddhism in India. Hinduism itself went through dramatic changes, namely the rise of Shiva and Vishnu and the transformation of their identity and the incorporation of ideas like Tantrism

Aryans and Caste

The origin of the caste system is unknown but it may have evolved from differences between the conquering Aryans and subject Dravidians---which happened to be difference of color. Varna , the Hindu word for caste means "color."

The caste system is believed to have been introduced around 1500 B.C. as a way for light-skinned Aryan invaders to keep the indigenous Dravidian people in their place. Higher castes are usually associated with whiter skin and purer Aryan descent because the first light-skinned Aryan conquerors gave the conquered dark-skin Dravidians dirtier, lower status tasks. Not all scholars agree with is assessment. “Color” could be a reference to something other than skin color.

The caste system in the Rig-Veda states may have grown out of the enslavement of people from the Indus Valley by the Aryans. The Vedas refer to conquered “Dasas” or “Dasyi” (names meaning “slaves” and probably referring to the early Dravidian-speaking Indus people).

The Vedas describe Aryan society divided into the four major castes: the Brahmins (priestly caste); Kshatriyas (warrior caste), the Vaisyas (farmer caste); and Sudras (laborers). Early in Aryan history the Brahmins gained political and religious superiority over the Kshatriyas.

DNA studies of Indians have found that highest caste members have more genetic similarities with Europeans while lower caste members have more genetic similarities with Asians. This is consistent with the historical record of the Aryan invasions and links between the Aryans and members of higher castes.

Life in Aryan India

Prior to the Mauryan Empire (321 to 185 B.C.) there was no organized Aryan government with a class of bureaucrats that acted as administrators. Instead there were numerous ruling chieftains ( rajan ), who were like warlords. They ruled with the support of armies and militias. They were counseled by purohitas , shaman-like figures believed to possess magical powers. When large kingdoms emerged the purohitas served as the equivalent of archbishops and prime ministers for the rulers, performing ritual sacrifices and giving political counsel. Commoners showed respect by kissing the feet of their sovereigns.

The Aryans were nomadic and depending on their cows and other livestock for food. Cows were a sign of wealth The Aryans loved music, dance and poetry, They gave South Asia the Rig Vega and three other books of hymn as well as epic poems like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Their work were passed down orally rather than written down. This is especially remarkable when one considers that the Mahabharata was the largest single poem ever written.

The development of iron technology around 500 B.C. led to widespread clearing of land and changes from pastorialism to agriculture and an increase in urbanization. By this time there was also a powerful merchant class and towns were using silver and copper coins. Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, emerged from a ruling family in an Aryan kingdom around 600 B.C.

Magistrates in ancient India used 18 different kinds of torture including beating the soles of the feet, hanging people upside down, and burning the finger joints. For severe crimes all 18 punishments were meted out in a single day. For lesser offenses they were dished out one a day for 18 days. Prisoners of war in ancient times were not used as slaves but deported to a different part of the kingdom. Suspected criminals were forced to chew and spit out rice grains. Grains stuck in the teeth were seen as signs of guilt.

Cannibalism in Ancient India

The were reports of cannibalism in ancient China, India and Egypt associated with exotic dishes enjoyed by the aristocracy and people surviving during famines.

Early Brahminic scriptures describe how humans were sacrificed in the name of the death goddess Kali: "having placed the victim before the goddess, the worshiper should adore her offering flowers, sandal paste, and bark, frequently repeating the mantra appropriate for sacrifice. Then, facing the north and placing the victim to face east, he should look backward and repeat this mantra : "...I shall slaughter thee today, and slaughter as a sacrifice is nor murder"...The sword, having thus been consecrated, should be taken up while repeating the mantra : "Am hum phat," and the excellent victim slaughtered with it."

After the Aryans

Northern India was divided into a vast number or feudal states that probably evolved from tribal groups. The Maagadha kingdom, formed in Bihar in 542 BC, became the dominant power and was later ruled by the Maurya dynasty, founded by Chandragupta 321 BC, that united most of Northern India in a centralized bureaucratic state.


Caste system in India


Od 1850 fotografija je korištena u indijskom potkontinentu Britanci za antropološke svrhe, pomaže klasificirati različite kaste.

During the time of the Rigveda, there were two varnas, the arya varna and the dasa varna. The distinction oringally arose from tribal divisions. The Vedic tribes regarded themselves as arya (the noble ones) and the rival tribes were called dasa, dasyu and pani. The dasas were frequent allies of the Aryan tribes, and they were probably assimilated into the Aryan society, giving rise to a class distinction. Many dasas were however in a servile position, giving rise to the eventual meaning of dasa as servant or slave.

The Rigvedic society was not distinguished by occupations. Many husbandmen and artisans practised a number of crafts. The chariot-maker (rathakara) and metal worker (karmara) enjoyed positions of importance and no stigma was attached to them. Similar observations hold for carpenters, tanners, weavers and others.

Towards the end of the Atharvaveda period, new class distinctions emerged. The erstwhile dasas are renamed Shudras, probably to distinguish them from the new meaning of dasa as slave. The aryas are renamed vis or Vaishya (meaning the members of the tribe) and the new elite classes of Brahmins (priests) and Kshatriyas (warriors) are designated as new varnas. The Shudras were not only the erstwhile dasas but also included the aboriginal tribes that were assimilated into the Aryan society as it expanded into Gangetic settlements. - Caste system in India

Dalit - Haplogroup H

Dalits razmatra gornje kaste biti izvan tradicionalnog hinduističkog Varna reda. Oni smatraju Panchama ili petoj skupini, iza četverostruke podjele hinduskom društvu. - Dalit

 

Sati

The archaeologist Elena Efimovna Kuzmina enlists clear parallels between the burial practices of the ancient Asiatic steppe Andronovo cultures (fl. 1800–1400 BC) and the Vedic Age. In Kuzmina's archaeological definition, sati is understood as a double burial, the co-cremation of a man and a woman/wife, a feature to be found in both cultures. Kuzʹmina states that in the Androvo culture and Vedic age, the practice was never strictly observed and was symbolic.


Sati


Anti-Brahminism

Brahminism refers to the domination of Indian society of the priestly class of Brahmins and their Hindu-ideology. This domination is being criticised by Anti-Brahminism. Brahmanism is the religion that developed out of the historical Vedic religion, and formed one of the constituents of the complex of Indian religions called Hinduism.

Early criticism against Brahmanism flourished within Sramana movement. Particularly in Nāstika schools of Indian philosophy like Buddhism, Jainism, and others such as Ājīvika, Cārvāka and Ajñana.

Brahminism - Anti-Brahminism

 

Aryans famous face


Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha

 

Shiva - Dionysus

When Dionysus grew up, he discovered the culture of the vine and the mode of extracting its precious juice, being the first to do so; but Hera struck him with madness, and drove him forth a wanderer through various parts of the earth. In Phrygia the goddess Cybele, better known to the Greeks as Rhea, cured him and taught him her religious rites, and he set out on a progress through Asia teaching the people the cultivation of the vine. The most famous part of his wanderings is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted several years. According to a legend, when Alexander the Great reached a city called Nysa near the Indus river, the locals said that their city was founded by Dionysus in the distant past and their city was dedicated to the god Dionysus.


Aryan

The earliest epigraphically-attested reference to the word ariya occurs in the 6th century BCE Behistun inscription, which describes itself to have been composed "in ariya. As is also the case for all other Old Iranian language usage, the ariya of the inscription does not signify anything but "Iranian".


Aryan

 

Sakâ

Skitsko porijeklo treba tražiti u plemenima koja su učestvovala u stvaranjima indiranskih (arijskih) naroda koji se na području današnjeg Afganistana podijeliše na nekoliko glavnih skupina. Ova plemena početkom 2. tisućljeća pr. Kr. koja su još govorila proto-indoiranskim jezikom sa područja Ukrajine migriraju na jugoistok gdje tada sa arheološke točke gledišta pastoralnu kulturu jamnaja mijenja andronovska kultura, tako prozvana po selu Andronovo.

Zauzeše područje kasnijeg Afganistana i podijeliše se na iransku i indijsku grupu. Prvi se zatim nasele oko 1000. pr. Kr. u zemlji Aria, čije će se ime sačuvati u riječi Iran. Druga grupa stigla je oko 1500. pr. Kr. na područje Pandžaba. Od drugog tisućljeća postoje dvije skupine jezika kojima govore njihovi potomci, a to su indoarijska i iranska.

Indijska grana, današnji su Hindusi koji na području Indije stvoriše više naroda koji su razvili vlastite jezike.

Iranska grupa podijeli se na brojna plemena, a to su: a) Perzijanci s plemenima Pasargad, Maraphii i Maspii. Plemenu Pasargadi pripada i klan Ahemenida čijeg je porijekla prva perzijska dinastija. Ostala plemena bila su nomadska: Dahae, Mardi, Dropici, Sagarti.

Druga grupa iranskih plemena su Kimerijci koje su Asirci nazvali Gimirru. Po njima Krim je dobio ime. Ovi u ranom 7. stoljeću uništiše kraljevstvo Urartu.

Od ovih iranskih plemena u u 6, 5, i 4. stoljeću pr. Kr. preostalo je nekoliko nomadskih plemena u srednjoazijskoj stepi koja su poznata kao Sakâ:

Tomislav Maretić

Herodot veli, da su se Skiti zvali sami Skoloti (Σκολότοι), a ime Skiti da su im nadjeli Grci. On razlikuje prave Skite od nepravijeh; za prave opet veli, da su se dijelili u dvoje, jedno su bili pastiri ili nomadi (Σκύθαι νομάδες), a drugo carski Skiti (Σκύθαι βασιλήϊοι). Po svoj prilici ovo razlikovanje ne znači drugo, nego da su jedni i drugi bili do duše isti narod, samo su se malo razlikovali govorom.

Ove neprave Skite razlikuje Herodot dvojako, jedno su mu Skiti orači (Σκύθαι ἀροτῆρες), a drugo su Skiti ratari (Σκύθαι γεωργοί).

Skitska je država u vrijeme Herodotovo obuzimala prostor, koji leži medju utokom Dona i utokom Dnjestra. Sjevernu je granicu njihovoj državi činila rječica Psol, za tijem gornji Bug i Dnjestar. On veli, da su Sauromati ili Sarmati na pola skitske krvi, jer govore pokvarenijem skitskijem jezikom. To ne može ništa drugo značiti, nego da su Sarmati i Skiti bili dva srodna plemena i da su govorili nješto različnijem jezicima.

 

Alans


Alans

The various forms of Alan - Greek: Ἀλανοί Alanoi; Chinese: 阿蘭聊 Alanliao (Pinyin) in the 2nd century, 阿蘭 Alan in the 3rd century - and Iron (a self-designation of the Alans' modern Ossetian descendants, indicating early tribal self-designation) and later Alanguo (阿蘭國) are derived from Iranian dialectal forms of Aryan. These and other variants of Aryan (such as Iran) were common self-designations of the Indo-Iranians, the common ancestors of the Indo-Aryans and Iranian peoples to whom the Alans belonged.

Scarcer spellings include Alauni or Halani. The Alans were also known over the course of their history by another group of related names including the variations Asi, As, and Os (Romanian Iasi, Bulgarian Uzi, Hungarian Jász, Russian Jasy, Georgian Osi, Moldavian Olani). It is this name that is the root of the modern Ossetian.

Genetics

In 2015 the Institute of Archaeology in Moscow conducted researches on various Sarmato-Alan and Saltovo-Mayaki culture Kurgan burials. In this analyses, the two Alan samples from 4th to 6th century AD turned out with yDNAs G2a-P15 and R1a-z94, while from the three Sarmatian samples from 2nd to 3rd century AD two turned out both with yDNA J1-M267 and one with R1a. And the three Saltovo-Mayaki samples from 8th to 9th century AD turned out with yDNAs G, J2a-M410 and R1a-z94 respectively.

 

Caucasian Albania, 100 BC - 700 AD


Old map showing Colchis, Iberia and Albania

Around the first centuries BC and AD the land south of the Greater Caucasus and north of the Lesser Caucasus was divided between Kolchis in the west, Caucasian Iberia in the center and Caucasian Albania in the east. To the southwest was Armenia and to the southeast Atropatene.

Movses Kaghankatvatsi and other ancient sources explain Arran or Arhan as the name of the legendary founder of Caucasian Albania (Aghvan) or even of the Iranian tribe known as Alans (Alani).

 

The Delmatae had Armatus as a god of war. The god En was also worshipped by Illyrians. En was demoted to demonic status following the arrival of Christianity in Illyria, and continues to be used in the Albanian language to refer to Thursday (Albanian: Enjte).


Indo-European migrations in Europe - Eupedia

 

Indo-European migrations in Europe

 

Suggested of middle bronze age cultures with Y-DNA haplogroups

Nordic Bronze Age: I1, R1a Culture of Finland Kiukainen culture: N1
Tumulus culture: E-V13, G2a, I2a, I2b, R1b Srubna culture: R1a
Atlantic Bronze Age:: E-V13, G2a, I2a, I2b, R1b Caucasian bronze age: G2a, J1, J2, R1a, R1b
Terramare culture: E-V13, G2a, I2, I2a, T1a Pontus / Licia: E-M78, G2a, J2, T1a
Lusatian culture: R1a Hittite empire: E-M78, G2a, I2, J1, J2, I2a, T1a, R1a, R1b
Illyria / Thrace: E-V13, G2a, I2a, I2a2, J2, T1a, R1a Kassite empire: J1
Mycenaean Greece: E-V13, G2a, I2, I2a, J2, T1a, R1a     Mittani: R1a1
Minoan Crete: E-V13, G2a, I2, I2a, T1a Levant: E-M78, G2a, I2, I2a, J1, J2, T1a, R1a, R1b

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