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Aten

Atenism ili Amarna herezu utvrđuje Amenhotep IV, kasnije se nazvao Eknaton, u štovanju i priznanju Aton-a. U svojoj pjesmi "Veliki himan Aton", Eknaton hvali ATEN-a kao kreatora, darovatelja života, i njeguje duh svijeta. Aton nema izrađen mit ili obitelj. Štovanje ATEN-a je iskorijenio Horemheb, vratio je tradicionalne bogove, a faraoni povezani s Atenismom izbrisani su iz egipatskih zapisa.


Eknaton

Eknaton provodi radikalnu vjersku reformu koja, u razdoblju od dvadesetak godina, u velikoj mjeri zamijenjuje stara vjerovanja i prakse egipatske državne religije. Smijenjuje vjersku hijerarhiju na čelu s moćnim svećenstvom Amona u Tebi. Za petnaest stoljeća Egipćani se pokloniše proširenoj obitelj bogova i božica, od kojih je svaki imao svoj razrađeni sustav svećenika, hramova, svetišta i obreda. Ključno obilježje tih kultova je štovanje slika i kipova bogova, kojima su se klanjali u mračnim hramskim odajama.

U početku, Eknaton je dopuštao štovanje tradicionalnih bogova, međutim ubrzo podiže ATEN-a na status ne samo vrhovnog Boga, nego kao "univerzalno božanstvo", te zabranjuje štovanje svih ostalih bogova, kao i štovanje idola.

Idoli su zabranjeni i u domovima, obično su zamijenjeni prikazima Eknatona i njegove obitelji koja štuje Aton-a i prima od njega Ankh (dah života - dušu). Sva stvorenja proizlaze iz Boga i postoje u Bogu. Konkretno, Bog nije prikazan u ljudskom obliku, već kao zrake svjetla koje se protežu iz Sunčevog diska. Viđen je kao nevidljiv izvor energije Boga sunca, od kojeg je vidljiva manifestacija Aton - Sunčev disk. Kasije se koristi fonetski ATEN, umjesto prikaza obasjanog Sunčevog diska. Aton se prikazuje kao univerzalna prisutnost, a ne kao fizička bića ili stvari.


Nefertiti

Načela ATEN religije zabilježena su na zidovima Eknatonove grobnice. U Atenismu, noć je vrijeme straha, a rad se obavlja kad je prisutano sunce. Tamjan se palio nekoliko puta dnevno, a u pratnji harfe pjevale se himne ATEN-u. Aton se brine za sva stvorenja, i stvorio je sve zemlje i ljude. Kad dobra osoba umre, on/ona nastavljaju živjeti u "Gradu Svjetlosti".

Značajna razlika od drugih egipatskih hramova, Aton-ovi hramovi su s otvorenim krovom dopuštajući ulazak zrakama sunca. Kipovi ATEN-a nisu bili dopušteni; to su vidjeli kao idolopoklonstvo. Svećenici su imali malu ulogu, kao poslužitelji (voća, cvijeća, kolača), a hramovi Aton-a nisu naplaćivali porez.

Eknaton je reformama odsjekao gospodarsku i filozofsku osnovu svećeničke snage, ukidanjem kultova svih drugih božanstava, velika i unosana industrija svedena je pod kontrolu.

Nakon Eknatonove smrti, kult Aten-a je gotovo odmah pao u nemilost zbog pritisaka Amonovog svećeništva. Eknatonovi hramovi uključujući i hram u Tebi, rastavljeni su i ponovno se koriste kao građevinski materijal za nove hramove, a natpisi ATEN-a izbrisani su. Eknaton, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamon i Ay uklonjeni su iz službene liste faraona, umjesto navedenih Horemheb je upisan odmah iza Amenhotepa III.


Eknaton & Nefertiti

 

Akhetaten

'On this day was the king in Akhetaten, in a tent of byssus. And the king - life, prosperity and health to him! - changed Akhetaten, which was its name, into Pa-aten-haru ('the city of the delight of the Sun's disk'). And the king appeared riding in the golden court-chariot, like the disk of the Sun, when it rises and sheds over the land its pleasant gifts, and he took the road that ends in Akhetaten, from the first time when the king had discovered it, to found it (the city) as a memorial to the disk of the Sun, according as the Sun-god king, who dispenses life eternally and for ever, had signified to him to found a memorial within it. A proper and complete sacrifice was offered on that day in the [temple of the sun] at Akhentaten, to the Sun's disk of the living god, who received the thanks of the love of the royal counterpart, the Pharaoh Akhenaten. Thereupon the king went up the river, and went up in his chariot before his father, the Sun-god king, towards the mountain to the south-east of the city of Akhetaten. The beams of the Sun's disk shone over him in a pure life, so as to make his body young every day. Thereupon king Akhenaten swore an oath by his father thus: 'Sweet love fills my heart for the queen, for her young children. Grant a great age to the Queen Nefertiti in long years; may she keep the hand of Pharaoh! Grant a great age to the royal daughter Meriaten, and to the royal daughter Makaten, and to their children; may they keep the hand of the queen, their mother, eternally and for ever!' 'What I swear is a true avowal of that which my heart says to me. Never is there falsehood in what I say'. With regard to the southern memorial tablet, [of the] four [memorial tablets] on the east of the city of Akhetaten, let this be the memorial tablet which I will have set up in the place which I have chosen for it in the south, for ever and eternally. This memorial tablet shall be set up in the south-west towards the middle, on the mountain of Akhetaten, in the midst of it. With regard to the memorial tablet in the middle, on the mountain to the east of the city of Akhetaten, let this be the memorial tablet for Akhetaten. This I will have set up in its place [which I have appointed for it in sight of] the city of Akhetaten, at the place which I have appointed for it in the east, for ever and eternally. This memorial tablet in the middle, on the mountain to the east of the city of Akhetaten, let it be in the midst of it. With regard to the memorial tablet to the north-east of Akhetaten, I will have it set up in its place. Let this be the place which I have appointed for it'. (In such wise shall the memorial tablets be set up, according to their direction towards Akhetaten. From the memorial tablet in the south to the memorial tablet in the north the distance amounts to 1,000 (. . . . . . )

Roughly two years after this Boundary Stela was carved a short text was added:

'This memorial tablet, which was placed in the middle, had fallen down. I will have it set up afresh, and placed again at the place at which it was [before]: this I swear. In the 8th Year, in the month Tybi, on the 9th day, the king was in Akhetaten, and Pharaoh mounted his court-chariot of polished copper, to behold the memorial tablets of the Sun's disk, which are on the hills in the territory to the south-east of Akhetaten.

I am a family man. I love my wife the beautiful Nefeneferuaten mery Waenre Nefertiti. I love my children, the blessed little children of the sun, Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten ta-Sherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre.

I was born and raised at the Palace of the Dazzling Aten, Aten Tjehen (what you now call Malkata), my mother was the Great Lady Chief Wife She of the Double Plumes Tiye, may she live, and my father was the Great Per A'a Nebmaatre, may he live.

My early childhood is so much of a blur to me. I existed in the shadow of my older brother Thutmose and my sister Sitamun. That is until my older brother died mysteriously. Some say it was murder. None the less I was then declared the Hawk-in-the-Nest and next in line to succeed my father as the Lord of the Two Lands.

When my father suffered a stroke I was made his co-regent and with the help of my mother I ruled the Two Lands! But all was not well. The greedy priests of the false gods did not want me to honor my true father, the glorious shining one, the Aten. That was very unwise of them.

When my father went home to the Aten the priests tried to elevate another in my place. For their treachery I took steps to eliminate them. But they were too powerful and my mother stopped me. So I removed myself and my court to the one place where the Aten had showed me that I would be safe and happy. I moved my family and the faithful to Akhetaten.

There I built a beautiful new shining city without the corruption that was Waset. My city was dazzling! My city was modern! My city had everything I could ever want or need.

I drew all of my faithful friends and family about me. I left those that could and would not support me in Waset to die.

'Beautiful is thine appearing in the horizon of heaven, thou living sun, the first who lived! Thou risest in the eastern horizon, an fillest every land with thy beauty. Thou art beautiful and great, and glistenest, and art high above every land. Thy rays, they encompass the lands, so far as all that thou hast created. When thou goest down in the western horizon, the earth is in darkness, as if it were dead. When it is dawn and thou risest in the horizon and shinest as the sun in the day, thou dispellest the darkness and sheddest thy beams. The Two Lands keep festival and awake. All beasts are content with their pasture, the trees and the bushes are verdant. The birds fly out of their nests and their wings praise thy ka. All wild beasts dance on their feet, all that fly and flutter -- they live when thou risest for them. Thou hast fashioned the earth according to thy desire, thou alone, with men, cattle, and all wild beasts, all that is upon the earth and goeth upon feet, and all that soareth above and flieth with its wings. Thou puttest every man in his place and thou suppliest their needs.

Thou arisest in thy forms as living sun. Thou makest millions of forms of thyself alone. Thou thyself art lifetime and men live in thee. The eyes look on thy beauty until thou settest. Thou art in mine heart, and there is none other that knoweth thee save thy son, whom thou makest to comprehend thy designs and thy might, the king of Upper and Lower Kemet, who liveth on Truth, lord of the Two Lands, the sole on of Ra, son of Ra, who liveth on Truth, lord of diadems, Akhenaten, great in his duration.'

 

 

Great Hymn to the Aten

You appear beautifully on the horizon of heaven,
You living Aten, the beginning of life!
When you have risen on the eastern horizon,
You have filled every land with your beauty.
you are gracious, great, glistening, and high over every land;
Your rays encompass the lands to the limit of all that you have made:
As you are Re, you reach to the end of them;
(you) subdue them (for) your beloved son.
though you are far away, your rays are on earth;
though you are in their faces, no one knows your going.

When you set in the western horizon,
The land is in darkness, in the manner of death.
They sleep in a room, with heads wrapped up,
Nor sees one eye the other.
All their goods which are under their heads might be stolen,
(But) they would not perceive (it).
Every lion has come forth from his den;
All creeping things, they sting.
Darkness is a shroud, and the earth is in stillness,
For he who made them rests in his horizon.

At daybreak, when you arise on the horizon,
When you shine as the Aten by day,
you drive away the darkness and give your rays.
The Two Lands are in festivity every day,
Awake and standing upon (their) feet,
For you have raised them up.
Washing their bodies, taking (their) clothing,
Their arms are (raised) in praise at your appearance.
All the world, they do their work.

All beasts are content with their pasturage;
Trees and plants are flourishing.
The birds which fly from their nests,
Their wings are (stretched out) in praise to your ka.
All beasts spring upon (their) feet.
Whatever flies and alights,
They live when you have risen (for) them.
The ships are sailing north and south as well,
For every way is open at your appearance.
The fish in the river dart before your face;
Thy rays are in the midst of the great green sea.

Creator of seed in women,
you who make fluid into man,
Who maintain the son in the womb of his mother,
Who sooth him with that which stills his weeping,
you nurse (even) in the womb,
Who give breath to sustain all that he has made!
When he descends from the womb to breathe
On the day when he is born,
you open his mouth completely,
you supply his necessities.
When the chicken in the egg speaks within the shell,
you give him breath within it to maintain him.
When you have made him his fulfillment within the egg, to break it,
He comes forth from the egg to speak at his completed (time);
He walks upon his legs when he comes forth from it.

How manifold it is, what you have made!
They are hidden from the face (of man).
O sole god, like whom there is no other!
you did create the world according to your desire,
Whilst you were alone: All men, cattle, and wild beasts,
Whatever is on earth, going upon (its) feet,
And what is on high, flying with its wings.

The countries of Syria and Nubia, the land of Egypt,
you set every man in his place,
you supply their necessities:
Everyone has his food, and his time of life is reckoned.
Their tongues are separate in speech,
And their natures as well;
Their skins are distinguished,
As you distinguish the foreign peoples.
you make a Nile in the underworld,
you bring forth as you desire
To maintain the people (of Egypt)
According as you made them for yourself,
The lord of all of them, wearying (himself) with them,
The lord of every land, rising for them,
The Aten of the day, great of majesty.

All distant foreign countries, you make their life (also),
For you have set a Nile in heaven,
That it may descend for them and make waves upon the mountains,
Like the great green sea,
To water their fields in their towns.
How effective they are, your plans, O lord of eternity!
The Nile in heaven, it is for the foreign peoples
And for the beasts of every desert that go upon (their) feet;
(While the true) Nile comes from the underworld for Egypt.

Your rays suckle every meadow.
When you rise, they live, they grow for you.
you make the seasons in order to rear all that you have made,
The winter to cool them,
And the heat that they may taste you.
you have made the distant sky in order to rise therein,
In order to see all that you make.
While you were alone,
Rising in your form as the living Aten,
Appearing, shining, withdrawing or approaching,
you made millions of forms of yourself alone.
Cities, towns, fields, road, and river --
Every eye beholds you over against them,
For you are the Aten of the day over the earth....

You are in my heart,
And there is no other that knows youy
Save your son Nefer-kheperu-Re Wa-en-Re,
For you have made him well-versed in your plans and in your strength.

The world came into being by your hand,
According as you have made them.
When you have risen they live,
When you set they die.
you are lifetime your own self,
For one lives (only) through you.
Eyes are (fixed) on beauty until you set.
All work is laid aside when you set in the west.
(But) when (you) rise (again),
[Everything is] made to flourish for the king,...
Since you found the earth
And raise them up for your son,
Who came forth from your body: the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, ... Akhenaten, ... and the Chief Wife of the King ... Nefertiti, living and youthful forever and ever.

 

Sumerski mitovi u Tell el Amarni

Dva mezopotamska mita okrivena su za vrijeme iskapanja egipatskog grada Tell el Amarne.

U jednome je riječ o junaku Adapa kojem se pružila mogučnost da zadobije besmrtnost, ali ju je izgubio upravo u trenutku kad mu je bila nadomak ruke.
Adapa je živio u gradu Eridu u južnoj Mezopotamiji. Bog Ea, "mudrac iz Erida", stvorio ga je na primjer ljudima kako bi trebali izgledati. Svakoga dana Adapa je čamcem odlazio na božije svetište, ali ga jednom prilikom vjetar izbaci na more. Čamac mu se prevrnuo i Adapa "sidje do kuće riba". Razljućen, on zaprijeti da će južnome vjetru isčupati krilo i čim je to izustio, vjetru se krilo slomilo.
Nakon sedam dana, Anu, kralj bogova, čuo je što se dogodilo i naredio da Adapa dovedu pred njega. Ea, koji je stvorio Adapa, ga upozori:

"Kad ti ponude kruh smrti, ne jedi ga.
Kad ti ponude vodu smrti, ne pij.
kat ti ponude halju, odjeni je.
kad ti ponude ulje, pomasti se."

Pa ipak, kad je Adapa došao pred Anua, bog ga nije osudio, kao što se moglo očekivati već je ukorio Ea.

"Zasto je Ea razotkrio plan neba i zemlje
Bezvrijednu ljudskom biću?
Koliko je do nas, što da učinimo sa Adapom?
Daj mu kruha života da jede!"
Kad su mu donijeli kruh života, nije jeo.
Kad su mu odnijeli vodu života, nije pio.
Kad su mu donijeli halju, odjenuo se.
Kad su mu donijeli ulje, pomastio se.

Adapovo odbijanje da jede kruh i pije vodu života iznenadi Anua. Naredi da ga odvedu i vrate na zemlju. Adapa je propustio priliku da postane besmrtan.
Završetak mita do danas nije poznat jer su pločice slomljene, ali čini se da je grad Eridu u očima bogova uživao izuzetan i povlašteni položaj zbog toga što je Adapa "išao na nebo". Ako je tome tako, mit objašnjava poseban položaj što ga je grad uživao u vezi sa pitanjima gradske uprave.

Drugi mitoloski tekst nađen u Tell el Armarni opisuje teškoće saobračanja izmedju neba, na kojem borave glavni bogovi, i podzemnog svijeta kojega nadzire gospodarica Ereshikigal.
Kad su bogovi pripremali svečni objed. Poslali su glasnika svojoj sestri Ereshkigal;

"Mi ne možemo sići do tebe, a ti ne možeš doć k nama.
Stoga pošalji nekoga da uzme tvoj dio hrane"

Ereshkigal pošalje svog glasonošu Namtara da obavi taj zadatak, ali ga jedan od bogova, Nergla, uvrijedi. kad je o tome izvijestio gospodaricu, ona ga posalje natrag sa riječima:

"Boga koji nije ustao pred mojim glasnikom -
Dovedi preda me da ga ubijem!"

Namtar nije mogao iznova pronaći Nergala jer je on otišao zatražiti pomoć u Ea, "svoga oca". Ea mu je obečao da će poslati demone da zaštite Nergala prilikom njegova susreta sa bijesnom Ereshkigal. Nergal siđe do vrata podezmenog svijeta i Ereshkigal mu naprasno priprijeti da će ga ubiti. Na tom je mjestu pločica veoma oštećena, ali nekoliko redaka pri dnu pokazuju da je Nergal uspio savladati Ereshkigal.

Unutar kuće on uhvati Ereshkigal,
Vukući je za kosu spusti je s prijestolja
Na zemlju da joj odsijeće glavu.
dok je molila da joj spasi život, plakala je i kazala:
"Budi mojim mužem i ja ću ti biti ženom.
Osiguraću ti ugled u tom prostranom podzemlju.
Položiću u tvoje ruke pločicu mudrosti.
Ti ćeš biti gospodar, a ja gospodarica."

Nergal je poljubi i utješi kratkom, ali dirljivom rečenicom:

"Što si od mene tražila tokom prošlih mjesci, sada će biti tvoje."

 

Utu-Shamash


Utu-Shamash

Utu (Akkadian rendition of Sumerian UD "Sun", Assyro-Babylonian Shamash "Sun") is the Sun god in Sumerian mythology.

 

Marduk

Marduk is spelled DAMAR.UTU in Sumerian, literally, "the calf of Utu" or "the young bull of the Sun". - AMAR (Amarna) & UTU (Atum)

 

Ja Svjetlost u Bibliji

Psalam 36 - U tebi je izvor životni, tvojom svjetlošću mi svjetlost vidimo.
37 Pravda će tvoja zasjati k`o svjetlost i tvoje pravo k`o sunce podnevno.
43 Pošlji svjetlost svoju i vjernost: nek` me vode, nek` me dovedu na tvoju svetu goru, u šatore tvoje!

Job - Ima onih koji mrze svjetlost: ne priznaju njezinih putova niti se staza drže njezinih.
Za vidjela oni se skrivaju, oni neće da za svjetlost znaju.

Izaija - K tvojoj svjetlosti koračaju narodi, i kraljevi k istoku tvoga sjaja.

Habakuk - Sjaj mu je k`o svjetlost, zrake sijevaju iz njegovih ruku, ondje mu se krije sila.

Malahija - A vama koji se Imena moga bojite sunce pravde će ogranuti sa zdravljem u zrakama, i vi ćete izlaziti poskakujući kao telad na pašu.

Ivan - Uistinu, tko god čini zlo, mrzi svjetlost i ne dolazi k svjetlosti da se ne razotkriju djela njegova;
Isus im zatim ponovno progovori: "Ja sam svjetlost svijeta; tko ide za mnom, neće hoditi u tami, nego će imati svjetlost života.
Dok sam na svijetu, svjetlost sam svijeta.
Dok imate svjetlost, vjerujte u svjetlost da budete sinovi svjetlosti!" To Isus doreče, a onda ode i sakri se od njih.
Ja - Svjetlost - dođoh na svijet da nijedan koji u mene vjeruje u tami ne ostane.

 

Great Hymn to the Aten (Psalam 104)

Great Hymn to the Aten (Psalam 104)


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