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Cereal-growing and bread-making (bread, ploughshare, seed, sheaf, yeast), water-works (canal, well), architecture (brick, house, pillar, wooden peg), tools or weapons (axe, club), textiles and garments (cloak, cloth, coarse garment, hem, needle) and plants (hemp, cannabis, mustard, Soma plant).
The Indus artisan who invented or deployed many skills and techniques had also become a writer or engraver using Indus script cipher. There are over 200 indus inscriptions incised on copper tablets providing evidence of metalworking by the artisans.
The cult vessel is found at Margiana and Bactria. Winged felines are found at Margiana and southwest of Afghanistan. Winged-feline is a motif found on Indus script objects and also on Nal pot (the site Nal has also yielded other Indus script objects).
era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; buḍhi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali)
erako = molten cast (G.) eraka, (copper) ‘metal infusion’; eraka ‘copper’ (Ka.)
Silver ceremonial axe covered with gold lamina;a winged feline and heads of two eagles are shown at the butt-end. Double-headed eagle on the axe is comparable to the motif depicting two one-horned heifers flanking nine-leaves on a unique Indus seal. The pattern of double-heading in artistic representation and duplication of signs or glyphs (e.g. two bulls facing each other) in an inscription have been explained in decoded Indus script as connoting dula 'pair'; rebus: dul 'casting (metal)'. If the eagle is read rebus using a lexems of Indian linguistic area to connote pajhar 'eagle' (rebus: pasra 'smithy'), the double-headed eagle can be read as: dul pajhar = metal casting smithy. The body of a person ligatured to the double-headed eagle can denote the smith whose metalworking trade is related to casting of metals.
The BMAC seals were made of metals, such as copper / bronze and silver, while the amulets were usually of stone, mostly black steatite. These latter usually show, amongst other motifs, snakes, scorpions, eagles, two-humped (typically Bactrian) camels, felines, etc.
The hieroglyphs used on BMAC objects and seals have their parallels in Indus script hieroglyphs: winged feline, rhinoceros, goat, eagle, snake. Each of these hieroglyphs is read rebus on Indus script using lexemes of Indian linguistic are and relate to metalworking trades. In the Avestan tradition related to Verethragna, ‘Vrahran Fire’ is the most sacred of all fires. It is a combination of 16 fires, most of which belong to those in the metalworking trades. This is the closest link to Rigvedic depiction of Indra as Vrtraghna.
Impression of cylinder seal from Gonur-1. "In this connection worthy of utmost attention is the impression of a cylinder seal on one of the Margianian vessels, found .... at Gonur. The central figure of a frequently repeated frieze composition is a standing nude anthropomorphic winged deity with an avian head holding two mountain goats by the legs...Such anthropomorphic winged and avian-headed deities are represented fairly fully in the glyptics and on the seals of Bactria.... These Bactrian images find the most impressive correspondence in Syro-Hittite glyptics...If the fact that it’s for the Mittani kingdom that the names of Aryan deities are evidenced is taken into account the importance of the Bactrian-Margianian images will become obvious in the light of solving the Aryan problem on the basis of new archaeological data." (Sarianidi,V., 1993, Margiana in the Ancient Orient. In IASCCA Information Bulletin, 19, pp. 5-28. Nauka.)
The cylinder seal impressions do carry some motifs which can be argued to show parallels with comparable motifs (of conflict) shown on Indus script inscriptions/hieroglyphs. The scene on a cosmetic flacon,Bactria and a cylinder seal impression from Toglok-21 are NOT comparable with any Indus script glyptic motifs.
Sarianidi notes that the conflict motif (involving an avian-headed person and animals) is recurrent at a number of BMAC contact areas to the west of Bactria upto Greece. The conflict motif on Indus script inscriptions do not show an avian-headed person, but perhaps a woman in conflict with two felines on either side of the person.
Spread of the motif of acrobats jumping over bulls shown on objects from Bactria to Greece. Indus script does show a motif of men vaulting over a bovine (buffalo), but the artistic rendering are not exactly comparable to the acrobat motif of BMAC.
The motifs on Indus seals (winged feline, conflict of a woman with two felines, rhinoceros, snakes, eagle (or, bird-in-flight), goat) have been decoded as hieroglyphs of Indian linguistic area related to metalworking trades.
For example, rhinoceros is decoded as: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’; baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) Thus, when an eagle is shown attacking rhinoceros, the motif can be read rebus: pajhar badhia = pasra badhoe, 'carpenter's workshop or workshop of an artisan working in wood and metal.'
Amulets and seals made of soft stone and pierced lengthwise often have a swastika engraved on one side. (Sarianidi, V. I., Die Kunst des Alten Afghanistan, Leipzig, 1986, Abb. 100; Fig. 1 after Sarianidi, V. I., Bactrian Centre of Ancient Art, Mesopotamia, 12 / 1977, Fig. 59 / 18; Fig. Of inter-locked snakes after Sarianidi, V. I., Seal- Amulets of the Murghab Style, in: Kohl, Ph. L., ed., The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia, New York, 1981,
It would thus appear that the user of Indus script hieroglyphs on the Gonur Tepe inscriptions – showing eagle hieroglyphs, wings of falcon (seals/seal impressions) is describing the nature of metalworking he or she is engaged in. It would also appear that the explanations of the narratives in Rigveda and in Mesopotamian hieroglyphs (cf. Apkallu) are echoes of these metalworking activities of Indus artisans (smiths and mine-workers).
Early 6th century BC Lydian electrum coin (one-third stater denomination). KINGS of Lydia. Uncertain King. Early 6th century BC. EL Third Stater - Trite (4.71 gm). Head of roaring lion right, sun with multiple rays on forehead / Double incuse punch. In Lydia, electrum was minted into 4.7-gram coins, each valued at 1/3 stater (meaning "standard"). Three of these coins (with a weight of about 14.1 grams, almost half an ounce) totaled one stater, about one month's pay for a soldier. To complement the stater, fractions were made: the trite (third), the hekte (sixth), and so forth, including 1/24 of a stater, and even down to 1/48th and 1/96th of a stater. The 1/96 stater was only about 0.14 to 0.15 grams. Larger denominations, such as a one stater coin, were minted as well.
An image of the obverse of a Lydian coin made of electrum
M428b The ‘rays of the sun’ glyph of this Mohenjodaro seal also recurs on early punch-marked coins of India. Rebus reading: arka ‘sun’; agasāle ‘goldsmithy’ (Ka.)erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) Rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.) eruvai = copper (Ta.); ere - a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a = syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.)
It is remarkable that the Indian linguistic area attests the following lexeme for sun: aru m. ʻ sun ʼ lex. Kho. yor Morgenstierne NTS ii 276 with ? <-> Whence y -- ? (CDIAL 612)
Aramaic aryaa 'l' aryeh 'lion'. A Northwest Semitic root *ryh 'lion'. (Kaplan, 1957-58, The lion in the Hebrew bible). Akkadian aleru. von Soden points out that Akkadian eru is also attested as aru. Akkadian a/eru 'eagle'.
Akkadian aru/eru may be equivalent of the Hebrew 'rh 'eagle'. The concise dictionary of Akkadian (Jeremy A. Black, 2000) notes: eru, aru, also ru 'eagle'. Bab. also vulture?
aru 'granary, storehouse' OA, jB lex.
Gayatri mantra of Rigveda when linked with the episode of Gayatri as a winged bird fetching soma is also an adoration of Savitr, Sun divinity. Savitr (Sanskrit सवित्र्, meaning stimulator, rouser). Savitr (stem), Savitā (nominative singular) is a solar deity and one of the Adityas i.e. off-spring of Vedic deity Aditi. His name in Vedic Sanskrit connotes "impeller, rouser, vivifier". Apam napat (Born of the Waters): Savitr is at least once called “apam napat” (Child of Waters), an epithet otherwise exclusively belonging to Agni. Savitr is an asura.
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