Noetic Academy Danel - This is a work in progress. Please send corrections, suggestions and faceplates to: noeticacademydanel AT gmail.com

Bronze Age in Europe

Y-chromosome R1a & R1b

 
Haplogroup R1a - Haplogroup R1b

 

Bronze Age migrations

The Bronze Age saw the development of long-distance trading networks, particularly along the Atlantic Coast and in the Danube valley. There was migration from Norway to Orkney and Shetland in this period (and to a lesser extent to mainland Scotland and Ireland). There was also migration from Germany to eastern England. Martin Richards estimated that there was about 4% mtDNA immigration to Europe in the Bronze Age.

Another theory about the origin of the Indo-European language centres around a hypothetical Proto-Indo-European people, who traced in the Kurgan hypothesis, to north of the Black and Caspian Seas at about 4500 BC. They domesticated the horse and possibly invented the wheel, and are considered to have spread their culture and genes across Europe. The Y haplogroup R1a is a proposed marker of these "Kurgan" genes, as is the Y Haplogroup R1b, although these haplogroups as a whole may be much older than the language family.

The rate of their physical expansion would have declined at the western edge of the steppe, but carriers of the R1a haplogroup are present in substantial numbers as far west as Germany. The Kurgan culture and language went farther, carried by the R1b haplogroup, and eventually replacing most cultures and languages all the way to the Atlantic. During the Iron Age, Celts are recorded as having moved from Gaul into Italy, Eastern Europe and Anatolia. The relationship between the Celts of Gaul and Spain is unclear as any migration occurred before records exist.

In the far north, carriers of the Y-haplogroup N arrived to Europe from Siberia, eventually expanding as far as Finland, though the specific timing of their arrival is uncertain. The most common North European subclade N1c1 is estimated to be around 8,000 years old. There is evidence of human settlement in Finland dating back to 8500 BCE, linked with Kunda culture and its putative ancestor Swiderian culture, but the latter is thought to have European origin. The geographical spread of haplogroup N in Europe is well aligned with the Pit–Comb Ware culture, whose emergence is commonly dated c. 4200 BCE, and with the distribution of Uralic languages. Mitochondrial DNA studies of Sami people, Haplogroup U5 are consistent with multiple migrations to Scandinavia from Volga-Ural region, starting 6,000 to 7,000 years before present.

The relationship between roles of European and Asian colonists in the prehistory of Finland is a point of some contention, and some scholars insist that Finns are "predominantly Eastern European and made up of people who trekked north from the Ukrainian refuge during the Ice Age". Farther east, the issue is less contentious. Haplogroup N carriers account for a significant part of all non-Slavic ethnic groups in northern Russia, including 37% of Karelians, 35% of Komi people (65% according to another study), 67% of Mari people, as many as 98% of Nenets people, 94% of Nganasans, and 86% to 94% of Yakuts.

Corded Ware culture, c. 2900 BC - 2350 BC

Y-DNA R1b & R1a, R1a1


Corded Ware culture

 

Archaeogenetics

Haak et al. (2008) extracted the mitochondrial DNA of 7 skeletal materials from a grave in Eulau (2,600 BCE). The remains belonged to mitochondrial haplogroups H, U5b, K1a2 and K1b (2 samples), I and X2. The Y-chromosomal DNA of two of the men was successfully extracted and found to belong to haplogroup R1a1.

Genetska studija provedena od strane Haak et al. (2015) utvrdili su da je veliki udio podrijetlo stanovništva kabelom Ware kulture došao iz Yamnaya kulture, prateći porijeklo je kabelom keramičke kulture u migracijama na Yamnaya iz stepa 4500 godina. Oko 75% DNK kasnoneolitičke kabelom Ware kostura pronađenih u Njemačkoj bio podudaraju s DNK od pojedinaca iz Yamnaya kulture. U istom istraživanju je procijenjena na 40-54% prinos od predaka Yamnaya u DNA moderne srednje i sjevernim Europljana i doprinos za 20-32% u suvremenim Southern Europljana, osim Sardinians (7.1% ili manje), te manjoj mjeri Sicilijanci (11,6% ili manje). Haak et al. Također, imajte na umu da su njihovi rezultati „sugeriraju” da haplogrupe R1b i R1a „proširila u Europu s Istoka poslije 3.000 godina prije Krista.”

Followed by Trzciniec culture, c. 1900 - 1200 BC > Lusatian culture, c. 1300 - 500 BC

Lusatian culture

Hoards in swampy areas are considered by some archaeologists (Hãnsel) as 'gifts for the Gods'. Human bones in 5 m deep sacrificial pits in Lossow (Brandenburg) might point to human sacrifice and possible ritual cannibalism.


Baden / Globular Amphora culture

Baden culture, c. 3600 - 2800 BC - Globular Amphora culture, c. 3400 - 2800 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G2a, I2, J & R1b, R1a

 

Indo-European expansion


Y-chromosome R1b

 

Afanasevo culture, c. 3300 - 2500 BC

Y-DNA R1b


Afanasevo culture

Samo tri Afanasevo muški uzorci imali objavljene njihove očeve Lineage rezultati, a sve tri, kao i većina Yamna muškaraca, pripadaju haplogroup R1b, a dvije od njih pripada subclade M269, najbrojniji u modernoj zapadnoj Europi.

 

Beaker culture, c 2800 - 1800 BC

Y-DNA R1b


Beaker culture

 

Archaeogenetics

Rani radovi objavljivanje rezultata na europskim širom marker frekvencija Y-DNA , poput onih od SEMINO (2000) i ROSSER (2000), u korelaciji haplogroup R1b-M269 sa najranijih epizoda europske kolonizacije od strane anatomski modernih ljudi (AMH). Na vrh frekvencije M269 u Iberia (posebno Baskiji) i Atlantic fasada se tvrdilo da predstavljaju potpisa ponovnog naseljavanja europskog Zapada sljedeće na posljednjeg glacijalnog maksimuma . Međutim, čak i prije nedavnih kritika i preciziranja, ideji da Iberijski R1b nose muškarci repopulated većina zapadne Europe nije bio u skladu sa nalazima koje su pokazale da je talijanski M269 loze nisu derivat iberijski one.

U novije vrijeme, podaci i izračuni iz Myres et al. (2011), Cruciani et al. (2011) Arredi et al. (2007), i Balaresque et al. (2010) predložiti kasnoneolitičke ulazak M269 u Europi.

Te hipoteze čini se da potvrđuje više izravnih dokaza iz drevne DNK . R1b je otkrivena u dva kostura muškaraca iz njemačkog Bell pehara stranice datiranom 2600-2500 prije Krista na Kromsdorf, od kojih je jedan pozitivan na M269, ali negativan po U106 subclade, dok je za drugi kostur M269 test bio nejasan. Kasniji Bell Beaker muški kostur od Quedlinburgu, Njemačka datiran 2296-2206 BC pozitivni R1b M269 P312 subclade.

Haak et al. (2015) zaključili su da R1b je vrlo vjerojatno širiti u Europu iz Pontic-kaspijske stepe nakon 3.000 godina prije Krista od strane Yamna ljudi, navodni proto-Indo-Europljana pod Kurgan hipoteze . Autori primijetili paucity haplogroup R1b u europskim uzorcima stanovništva datira iz brončanog doba, sa samo jednom od 70 osoba iz mezolitika i neolitika Europi pripadaju haplogroup R1 ili bilo koje od njezinih podružnica.

Istraživanje je također pokazalo, preko autosomno analize, da je većina post-neolitskih populacija u Europi, uključujući i njihove drevne uzoraka uzetih iz tovilišta čašu u središnjoj Europi, rezultat su tri puta miješanje rasa procesa između Yamnaya; Neolitska poljoprivrednici; i zapadni europski lovci sakupljači koji su bili prisutni u Europi barem od mezolitika.

Iz mitohondrijske DNA perspektive, haplogroup H , koja ima visoku incidenciju (≈40%) u cijeloj Europi. Rane studije Richards et al (2000) je predložio da se diže (prije tisuću godina) 28-23 Kya, širenje u Europi ≈20 Kya, prije toga ponovno širi iz Iberijskog ledenog utočište ≈15 Kya, izračuni naknadno potvrđuje Pereira et dr. (2005), međutim, veća studija Roostalu et al. (2007), koji uključuje više podataka s Bliskog istoka, predložio da dok Hg H počelo širiti c.  20  Kya, to je ograničeno na Bliskom istoku, Kavkazu i jugoistočne Europe. Umjesto njegove naknadne širiti dalje na zapad došlo kasnije, u post-ledenog doba iz traženo Južne bijele rase Refugium. Ova hipoteza je podržan od nedavnog drevni analize DNK studija koja povezuje širenje mtDNA Hg H u Zapadnoj Europi s Bell pehara fenomen.

Beaker culture predložen kao kandidat za rane indo-europske kulture, točnije predaka Proto-keltsko.

  • Melchior et al. (2010) managed to retrieve two mtDNA sequences from the Damsbo site (2200 BCE) in Denmark, which belonged to haplogroups U4 and U5a2a.
  • Lee et al. (2012) retrieved the DNA of eight skeletons (6 in individual graves and 2 in double graves) in a cemetery located at Kromsdorf, Thuringia, Germany. The samples were dated between 2600 and 2500 BCE. Six mtDNA sequences were obtained and attributed to haplogroups U2e, U5a1, T1a, K1, I1 and W5a. The Y-DNA of two skeletons was also tested and assigned to haplogroup R1b (including one positive for M269, but negative for the Germanic S21/U106).

 

Genetika europe 3000 BC

Internacionalni tim znanstvenika je usporedio prastaru genetičku kartu Europe s današnjom situacijom. Uz pomoć istraživanja DNK na skeletima prapovijesnih Europljana koji su nastanjivali naš kontinent prije 7500 do 4000 godina, otkriveno je kako po majčinoj liniji 45% Europljana nosi neolitsku genetiku i to genetiku koja je prije misteriozne promjene u genofondu prastarih mezolitičkih lovaca sakupljača, bila zastupljena sa samo 19%.
Ta genetika je prije 5000 godina doživjela veliku preobrazbu, naročito na područjima Europe na kojoj se širila takozvana Bell Beaker kultura.
Voditelj tima znanstvenika dr. Alan Cooper je za online tiskovinu Daily Mail, rekao sljedeće:
"Nešto se jako važno dogodilo u to vrijeme, a mi sada pokušavamo shvatiti o čemu je bila riječ."
Najstariji skeleti čija je genetika bila u potpunosti drugačija od današnjih europskih haplotipa, iskopani su u centralnoj Njemačkoj. Zahvaljujući takvim nalazima diljem našeg kontinenta, genetičari su uspjeli napraviti preciznu kronološku mapu u kojoj se vidi koliko se situacija na terenu promijenila diljem Europe i to gotovo u trenu.
DNK je otkrila da su današnji Europljani po ženskoj liniji (mitohondrijska DNK) naslijedili takozvanu H haplogrupu s kretanjem prvih poljoprivrednika sa Srednjeg Istoka prema Njemačkoj od prije 7500 godina. No negdje prije pet milenija, ti genetički markeri su gotovo u potpunosti nestali, točnije zamijenjeni su drugačijom genetikom u nekoliko stotina godina.

Najinteresantnije je da se genetika mijenjala s ekspanzijom i utjecajem Bell Beaker kulture. Ova interesantna neolitska kultura je za sobom ostavila tipično glineno posuđe s izraženim vodoravnim uresima. Mitohondrijska DNK se mijenjala zajedno s napredovanjem ove kulture, stvarajući sasvim nove genetičke uzorke.

 

Woodhenge

Construction of the timber monument was probably earlier, the ditch has been dated to between 2470 and 2000 BC, which would be about the same time as, or slightly later than, construction of the stone circle at Stonehenge. Radiocarbon dating of artefacts shows that the site was still in use around 1800 BC.

The site consists of six concentric oval rings of postholes, the outermost being about 43 by 40 metres (141 by 131 ft) wide. They are surrounded first by a single flat-bottomed ditch, 2.4 metres (7.9 ft) deep and up to 12 metres (39 ft) wide, and finally by an outer bank, about 10 metres (33 ft) wide and 1 metre (3.3 ft) high. With an overall diameter measuring 110 metres (360 ft) (including bank and ditch,) the site had a single entrance to the north-east.

At the centre of the rings was a crouched inhumation of a child which Cunnington interpreted as a dedicatory sacrifice, its skull having been split. After excavation, the remains were taken to London, where they were destroyed during The Blitz, making further examination impossible. Cunnington also found a crouched inhumation of a teenager within a grave dug in the Eastern section of the ditch, opposite the entrance.

Beaker culture - Child sacrifice

List of bog bodies - Celts

  • We suggest; Y-DNA I1 & R1b

 

Tumulus culture, c 1600 - 1200 BC

Y-DNA R1b


Tumulus culture

The Tumulus culture was eminently a warrior society which expanded with new chiefdoms eastward into the Carpathian Basin (up to the river Tisza), and northward into Polish and central European Únětice territories, with dispersed settlements centred in fortified structures.

  • We suggest; Tumulus culture = Proto-kelti

The Kyffhäuser caves in Thuringia contain headless skeletons and split human and animal bones that have been interpreted as sacrifices. Other deposits include grain, knotted vegetable fibres and hair and bronze objects (axes, pendants and pins). The Ith-caves (Lower Saxony) have yielded comparative material.

In the Knovíz-culture, human bones with cut-marks and traces of burning have been found in settlement pits. They have been interpreted as evidence for cannibalism.


Early bronze age in Europe, c. 2800 to 2500 BC - Eupedia

 

Early bronze age in Europe, c. 2800 to 2500 BC

 

Suggested of Early Bronze Age cultures with Y-DNA haplogroups

Beaker culture: R1b Comb Ware culture: N1
Cardium pottery culture: E-V13, G2a, I2a Catacomb Poltavka Abashevo culture: R1a
Corded Ware culture: R1b, R1a, R1a1 Maykop culture: G2a, J & R1b
Vučedol culture: G2a, I2, R1a Kura-Araxes culture: J1, R1b & J2, R1a
Helladic, Cycladic, Minoan culture: E-V13, G2a, I2, I2a, T1a   Mesopotamia/Levant: E-M78, G2a, I2, I2a, J1, J2, T1a, R1a, R1b

<< Old Europe Index Ubaid Uruk >>

This is a work in progress. Please send corrections, suggestions and faceplates to: noeticacademydanel AT gmail.com