Dorani

But after the return of the Heracleidae and the partitioning of the country, it came to pass that many of the former inhabitants were driven out of their homelands into Attica by the Heracleidae and the Dorians who came back with them. - Strabo

After the conclusion of the Trojan war and the death of Nestor after his return home, the Dorian expedition and return of the Heracleidae, which took place two generations later, drove the descendants of Nestor from Messenia. This has already formed a part of my account of Tisamenus. - PAUSANIAS, Description of Greece

Dolazak Dorana dogodio se dvije generacije poslije Trojanskog rata.

 

Tel Dor

Dor was an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, (Joshua 12:23) whose ruler was an ally of Jabin king of Hazor against Joshua, (Joshua 11:1,2). In the 12th century, the town appears to have been taken by the Tjekker, and was ruled by them at least as late as the early 11th century BCE. It appears to have been within the territory of the tribe of Asher, though allotted to Manasseh, (Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:27). It was one of Solomon's commissariat districts (Judges 1:27; 1 Kings 4:11). It has been placed in the ninth mile from Caesarea, on the way to Ptolemais.

 

Pjesma Debore i Baraka

Dan na stranim lađama (odlazak Dorana)

Toga dana Debora i Barak, sin Abinoamov, zapjevaše ovu pjesmu: Ratoborno rasuše kose borci izraelski i dragovoljno krenu narod: blagoslivljajte Jahvu! Čujte, o kraljevi! Poslušajte, knezovi! Jahvi ja pjesmu pjevam, Jahvu, Boga Izraelova, ja slavim. Sa Seira kad si silazio, Jahve, pobjednički kad si kročio iz polja edomskih, sva se zemlja tresla, lila se nebesa, oblaci curkom daždjeli. Brda se tresla pred tobom, o Jahve, Jahve, Bože Izraelov! U dane Šamgara, sina Anatova, u dane Jaele opustješe putovi; i oni koji su putovali, obilažahu naokolo. Pusta bijahu sela izraelska dok ne ustadoh ja, Debora, dok ne ustadoh kao majka Izraelu. Tuđe bogove sebi izabraše, i zato im rat stade pred vrata. Za pet gradova ne bi nijednog štita! Nijednog kralja za četrdeset tisuća u Izraelu! Srce moje kuca za vođe izraelske, za narod što dragovoljno u boj kreće! Blagoslivljajte Jahvu! Vi koji na bijelim jašete magaricama, na sagovima sjedeći, i vi koji hodite putovima, pjevajte, uz povike razdraganih pastira kod pojila. Neka se slave dobročinstva Jahvina i vladavina njegova Izraelom! I narod Jahvin siđe na vrata. Probudi se, Deboro, ustani! Ustani, pjesmu zapjevaj! Hrabro! Ustani, Barače, vodi u roblje porobljivače svoje, sine Abinoamov! Tad siđe na vrata Izrael, narod Jahvin pohrli junački. Iz Efrajima potekoše u dolinu, za njima stiže među čete tvoje Benjamin. Iz Makira stupaju glavari, iz Zebuluna oni što nose štap zapovjednički. Knezovi Jisakarovi s Deborom bjehu, a Naftali pođe s Barakom, pohrli da ga stigne u dolini. Kod Rubenovih potoka dugo se savjetuju. Zašto si ostao u torovima da slušaš sred stada svirku frule? Kod Rubenovih potoka dugo se savjetuju. Gilead osta s onu stranu Jordana. A zašto je Dan na stranim lađama? Zašto na obali mora Ašer sjedi, mirno prebiva u svojim zaljevima? Zebulun je narod što prkosi smrti s Naftalijem, na visoravnima. Došli su kraljevi, boj zametnuli, boj bili kraljevi kanaanski, u Tanaku, na vodi megidskoj, al' ni mrve srebra ne dobiše. Sa nebeskih staza vojevahu, vojevahu zvijezde prot' Siseri. Sve otplavi potok Kišon, potok Kišon pradavni. Gazi čvrsto, moja dušo! Topot silan odjekuje: jure borci na konjima! "Proklinjite Meroz," Anđeo će Jahvin, "proklinjite žitelje njegove što Jahvi nisu u pomoć pritekli, u pomoć Jahvi s junacima." Blagoslovljena među ženama bila Jaela, žena Hebera Kenijca, među ženama šatora nek' je slavljena! On vode zaiska, mlijeka mu ona dade, u zdjelu dragocjenu nali mu povlake. Rukom lijevom za klinom segnu, a desnom za čekićem kovačkim. Udari Siseru, glavu mu razmrska, probode mu, razbi sljepoočicu. Do nogu pade joj, sruši se, leže, do nogu pade joj, sruši se; i gdje pade, mrtav osta. Kroz prozor motri Siserina mati, kroz prozor motri, na rešetku jada: "Dugo mu se kola ne vraćaju: što im je zapreg tako spor?" Najmudrija zbori joj dvorkinja, sebi samoj ona odgovara: "Plijen su našli pa ga dijele: po djevojku na ratnika, po djevojku i po dvije, halju-dvije za Siseru, vezen rubac za moj vrat!" Tako neka ginu, Jahve, svi neprijatelji tvoji! A oni koji te ljube nek budu kao sunce kada se diže u svojemu sjaju! I zemlja bijaše mirna četrdeset godina.


Makedonci

Grčki povjesničar Herodot otkriva da su neki od starih Grka zapravo došli iz Egipta, te da je predak Dorskih prinčeva u južnoj Grčkoj je određeni "Danae, kći Acrisus" (Herodot , VI, 1, iii). Pojam "Dorian" očito dolazi od imena grada Manašeova u sjevernom Izraelu, pod nazivom "Dor," blizu obale Sredozemlja. Dorani su očito Danovci, od Danova plemena, možda pomiješana sa nekim od potomaka Manašeovih.
Danova plemena su se naselila i u ovu regiju, i okolna područja, ostavljajući svoje ime u Mace-DON-la, i Dar-DAN-elles, a na sjeveru uz rijeku DAN-Ube, a na području Sarmata nalaze se rijeke DN-iper, DN-Ister, a DON - Mygdonia, Edoni

 

Moćni Hercules

Biblijski Arheolog Magazine komentira, "lavovi, nisu bili česti u Grčkoj." (59: 1, str.17). U Grčkoj nikada nije bilo lavova.

Riječ Hercules na grčkom je "Heraklo", gotovo identično sa hebrejskom riječi za trgovce, "Heraclim", a Heraklo je došao iz "Argos". Grčki mitovi govore da su ljudi iz Argos Danioi, i potomci su "Danaos" i "Bele". U Bibliji, praotac Dan bio je sin "Bilhe" (Postanak 30: 3-6).

Samson je bio iz plemena Dan!

 
Moćni Hercules - Dan

Let's compare Samson and Hercules (Heracles)

Born of a God and a Mortal

Let's get the most controversial out of the way first. You might think that the most obvious difference between them is that while Hercules is the illegitimate child of Zeus, Samson is born of human parents, as described in this week's haftarah.

But if you look closely at Judges 13, there are little hints that all is not as it seems.

We are told that Manoach, of the tribe of Dan, has a wife, sadly unnamed, who is barren, a common enough Biblical trope, but then in verse 3 we find:

The angel of the Lord appeared to her and said, “You are barren and childless, but you are going to become pregnant and give birth to a son..."

The oddity here is not in the content of the prophecy but to whom it was given. Unlike in the case of Abraham for example, the angel of the Lord appears to Manoach's wife in person, when she is alone in the field and her husband is nowhere to be seen, and tells her that she will become pregnant.

When Manoach asks God for the man to come again, he does so in verse 9, again when his wife is alone:

God heeded Manoah's plea, and the angel of Lord came to the woman again. She was sitting in the field and her husband Manoah was not with her.

It's extremely unusual for married women to be out in the field without their husbands, and even more unusual for them to receive this kind of prophecy.

In fact, the case is even stronger than that, as when the Bible says the Angel of the Lord, it often actually means God Himself, having taken some kind of mortal form to walk on earth. We can see this in Genesis 18, when the Lord appeared to Abraham and then three 'angels' come to meet him, or at the end of our haftarah when Manoach worries that they will surely die because "they have seen God" (v22).

So God Himself 'came' to a married woman alone in the field, twice, and then she miraculously got pregnant and had a super-powered son...

Lions

You can always recognise Hercules when you see him in classic art because he always bears two items - the second is number 3 below, but the first is a lion skin, that Hercules is always depicted wearing over his head. This is the skin of the Nemean Lion, a giant monster that Hercules slew as the first of his labours, and wore afterwards as the skin was virtually impenetrable.

Samson too is closely connected with a lion, in an encounter that happens on his way to get his first Philistine wife:

"5] Samson went down to Timnah together with his father and mother. As they approached the vineyards of Timnah, suddenly a young lion came roaring toward him. 6] The Spirit of the LORD came powerfully upon him so that he tore the lion apart with his bare hands as he might have torn a young goat. But he told neither his father nor his mother what he had done."

The lion makes a return appearance in the form of a rather awkward riddles, but its appearance here is as a deadly foe to attack Samson just as he is setting out on his heroic journey, just as the Nemean Lion is the first of Hercules' labours.

Blunt Instruments

To defeat the Nemean Lion, Hercules must turn to a club, as his hide was impenetrable to blades. This became the second sign of Hercules, and he is always shown carrying his club into battle, while other Greek warriors used swords or spears.

 Samson too is connected to blunt objects (as well as being something of a blunt object himself). In Judges 15:15 he takes up the jawbone of an ass and kills 1000 Philistines with it. In fact, Samson never uses a bladed weapon.

Women Troubles

Samson's eventual capture by the Philistines is caused by his second wife, Delilah (whose name sounds rather like Lailah, meaning night, an interesting contrast to Samson, whose name connects to the Hebrew word Shemesh, meaning the sun).

In Judges 16 Delilah eventually persuades Samson to tell her the the secret of his strength, that it lies in his uncut hair. She promptly shaves him completely, and Samson is easily captured by the Philistines who torture and imprison him.

Hercules too is brought low by his wife, though in his case it was mostly inadvertent. In a somewhat convoluted story, Hercules' second wife Deianira, has a coat laced with a hydra's poison that she believes will make Hercules love her more. When she eventually suspects him of adultery, she gives him the coat to wear, only to find that it burns her husband's flesh off his body and kills him (though Zeus brings his immortal part to the heavens, elevating him to godhood).

Doorways

Perhaps most interestingly, Hercules and Samson are both connected to doorways.

Hercules is famed for passing through two passages in his labours, first out of the Mediterranean, creating the 'Pillars of Hercules', that we know as the Straits of Gibraltar. And then in his 12th and final labour, Hercules crosses the threshold of Hades to capture the three-headed dog Cerberus, who guarded the realm of the dead.

These gateways, at opposite ends of the world, west and east, connect also to the rising sun, that ancients believed passed through tunnels beneath the earth every night.

Samson too is connected to doorways.

In Judges 16 there is a very strange story when Samson is surprised at night in Gaza, in the west of the land of Israel, and escapes by lifting the doors off their hinges and carrying them all the way to Hebron in the East.

And then Samson ends his own life standing between two pillars, as he is taunted by the Philistines and brings down the whole stadium, killing everyone inside.

* * *

So what do these connections have to teach us? Why are there so many connections between the Greek Hercules and the Biblical Samson?

The Archeologist Dr David Ilan of Hebrew University, who spent 20 years excavating Dan in the north of Israel where Samson is meant to be from, told me his own theory at Limmud UK a couple of years ago.

If you look at the material archeology in Dan, it is extremely Greek in origin, much more so than the rest of Israel. It seems to Dr Ilan, that the tribe of Dan were originally a 'Greek' tribe (the Greeks called themselves Danaan, remember), that moved to the area in ancient times and became absorbed into the people of Israel over time.

The story of Samson then is a Dan story, one that they may have brought with them as their own cultural hero, that the editor of Judges drew on in his compilation, including the Danite hero in the national saga of the Bible. This story too is holy, is the message, the tribe of Dan are part of our people, and this story deserves its place in our canon.

More than that, Hercules and Samson are archetypal sun heroes, connected with the rising and setting sun, as their powers too wax and wane. They both have a lot in common with Gilgamesh, who has to run through the tunnels of the sun before it set, in order to learn the secret of eternal life.

But while Hercules attains actual immortality, elevated forever to the pantheon of Greek gods, Samson earns a very different kind of immortality.

Samson's immortality lies in his legend, in his actions to fight the enemies of Israel.

But ultimately, I think the Bible (and certainly the rabbis) are unsure if we should be emulating Samson. His life is full of conflict and he never receives any peace or reward in his lifetime. While Hercules was widely adored and worshiped across the world, Samson is a bit of an embarrassment in the Biblical text, a giant of a man that we can learn from, but who we should not strive to copy.


Sparta

Heraldry Points the Way

If you study the Iliad closely, you will discover that the shields of the protagonists at the siege of Troy were painted with HERALDIC SYMBOLS that represented the clans present at the conflict. The leaders of the Greek armies carried shields decorated with both EAGLES and LIONS, while the Trojan defenders also had LIONS on their shields. The Iliad also describes a huge EAGLE as appearing over the contending armies at the siege of Troy. What do these symbols mean?

Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, records that the Lacedaemonian king Areios sent an embassy to the Jewish High Priest acknowledging that the JEWS and the LACEDAEMONIANS were RACIALLY AKIN, both having descended from Abraham. A later High Priest, sending envoys to visit the SPARTANS recalled the incident.

It is of the greatest interest to read that the SEAL on the letter from Sparta showed an EAGLE holding fast a SERPENT. BOTH these emblems are ISRAELITISH -- OF THE TRIBE OF DAN! The Spartans had preserved it for their official transactions. This episode is confirmed in the apocryphal Book of I Macabees.

Jonathan

Odgovor židovskog velikog svećenika na pismo spartanskih Grka:

... "Jonathan visoki svećenik židovskog naroda na ephori i Senat i narod u Lacedaemonians, poslati čestitku:

"Kada je u prijašnjim vremenima poslanica je donijeli do Onias, koji je tada bio naš veliki svećenik... U vezi roda koji je bio između nas i vas, primjerak koji je ovdje prisajedine, oboje smo radosno primili poslanicu... Jer mi bili su i zadovoljni zbog toga od svetim spisima, ali nije mi se ne misli stati, najprije početi zahtjev tog odnosa prema vama, slava koju nam sada daje vama. To je dugo vremena otkako ovoj vezi našeg vama bijaše obnovio, a kada smo, nakon svete i festivalskih dana ponuditi žrtve Bogu, molimo Ga za vaše očuvanje i pobjede.... Vi ćete, dakle, dobro da vas pišite nam, i pošaljite nam račun ono što stoji u potrebi od nas, jer smo u svemu sklon ponašati prema vašim željama " (starine Židova, XIII, 5, 8).

U drevnoj mitologiji, Bryant se odnosi na Stephanus Byzantium ukazuje da Alexander Polyhistor i Claudius Jolaus također govore o izravnoj vezi između spartanskih Grka i Izraelaca (vol. 5, str. 51-52, 60).

Prva knjiga o Makabejcima

Spartanski kralj Arije pozdravlja velikog svećenika Oniju. Našlo se u spisu o Spartancima i Židovima da su braća i da su od Abrahamova roda. Sad, kad to znamo, bit će nam drago ako nam pišete o vašem blagostanju. Mi vam pišemo ovako: vaša stada i vaša dobra naša su, a naša su vaša. Zato smo odredili da vam se u tom smislu donese poruka.

 
Spartanci - amblem zmija

 

Sabines – Spartanci

In Dionysius's work, a group of Lacedaemonians fled Sparta since they regarded the laws of Lycurgus as too severe. In Italy, they founded the Spartan colony of Foronia (near the Pomentine plains) and some from that colony settled among the Sabines. According to the account, the Sabine habits of belligerence (aggressive or warlike behavior) and frugality (prudence in avoiding waste) were known to have derived from the Spartans. Plutarch also states in the Life of Numa Pompilius, "Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians..."


Samnitski vojnici, freska iz Nole


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