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Eurasian Steppe


Haplogroup R1a

Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were expanding from the Balkans into the Ukraine. The Dnieper-Donets culture (~5000 bc, central and western Ukraine) and the Sredny Stog culture (~4000 bc, south-central Ukraine) represented an eastern PIE dialect, ancestral to the Indo-Iranian and possibly the Tokharian and Hittite languages as well.

Note: Most linguists follow Marija Gimbates' Kurgan theory. A smaller group follow Colin Renfrew's Anatolian theory, but I prefer Diakonov's Balkan theory, which is also a part of Renfrew's extended theory.

The Stedny Stog culture would continue to develop the proto-Indo-Iranian dialect. These proto-Indo-Iranians would over time move eastward and be at least partially responsible for the development of the extensive Yamna culture (~3600). The Yamna culture would absorb much of the earlier eastern PIE and proto-Uralic people, as well as drive others even further east. It may have remained linguistically diverse for many centuries.

Of the eastern PIE people, one group, already by this time located along the Kuba river valley north of the Caucasus, developed the Maykop culture (~3700 bc), which thrived as an intermediary between the Indo-Iranians of the steppes and the more advanced civilizations south of the Caucasus. I believe that they would eventually move into Anatolia to become the Hittites and their relations. Another group moved north and east where, by 3300 bc, they would form the Afanasevo culture of the Tokharians.

In the Bronze Age several cultures are being developed: the Catacomb culture (~2800 bc) in the Ukraine; the Poltavka culture (~2700 bc) in the Volga valley; and, north of the Poltavka culture, the Abashevo culture (~2500 bc), which may have been at least in part Finno-Ugric.

Sintashta culture (~2100 bc, north of Kazakhstan, at the southern end of the Ural Mountains) - which introduced the chariot - and the broader Andronovo culture (~2000 bc) in what is now Kazakhstan.

Srubna culture (~1800 bc) which ranged from Ukraine to the Ural mountains, with the Andronovo continuing to the east. This culture may have included the Cimmerians, who would be pushed back into eastern Europe by the Indo-Iranian Scyths and, eventually, invade Anatolia.


Catacomb culture, c. 2800 - 2200 BC

Y-DNA R1a


Catacomb culture

 

Poltavka culture, c. 2700 - 2100 BC

Y-DNA R1a1a1b2 & R1a1a1


Poltavka culture

Archaeogenetics

  • Kurgan burials at Utyevka VI cemetery:
    • kurgan 7, grave 1, sample I0419, male - Y-DNA R1a1a1b2 and mtDNA U2e1h
  • Kurgan burials at Utyevka IV cemetery:
    • kurgan 6, grave 2, sample I0246, male - Y-DNA R1a1a1 (Y-SNP calls for I0246); originally reported as P1
    • kurgan 4, grave 1, sample I0418, female - mtDNA T1a1

 

Abashevo culture, c. 2500 - 1900 BC

It was preceded by the Yamna culture and succeeded by the Srubna culture and the Sintashta culture.

Abashevo culture


Srubna - Andronovo culture


Y-chromosome R1a-M458


R1a-M458

 

Srubna culture, c. 1800 - 1200 BC

Y-DNA R1a1, R1a1a, R1a1a1b2a2a & R1a1a1b2


Srubna culture

 

Archaeogenetics

In a study published on 10 October 2015, 14 individuals of the Srubna culture could be surveyed. Extractions from 100% of the males (six men from 5 different cemeteries) were determined to be of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1. Extractions of mtDNA from fourteen individuals were determined to represent five samples of haplogroup H, four samples of haplogroup U5, two samples of T1, one sample of T2, one sample of K1b, one of J2b and one of I1a. The list of 14 surveyed individuals:

Kurgan burials at Spiridonovka IV cemetery:
kurgan 1, grave 11, sample I0360, male - Y-DNA R1a1 (SRY1532.2) and mtDNA U5a1
kurgan 2, grave 5, sample I0361, male - Y-DNA R1a1a (M17) and mtDNA H5b
kurgan 1, grave 6, sample I0359, female - mtDNA U5a2a1
kurgan 1, grave 15, sample I0354, female - mtDNA U5a1
kurgan 2, grave 1, sample I0358, female - mtDNA H6a1a

Kurgan burials at Spiridonovka II cemetery:
kurgan 1, grave 1, sample I0430, male - Y-DNA R1a1a1b2a2a (Z2123) and mtDNA H3g
kurgan 1, grave 2, sample I0431, female - mtDNA H2b
kurgan 11, grave 12, sample I0421, female - mtDNA H3g

Kurgan burials at Barinovka I cemetery:
kurgan 2, grave 17, sample I0423, male - R1a1a1b2 (Z93) and mtDNA J2b1a2a
kurgan 2, grave 24, sample I0422, female - mtDNA type T1a1

Kurgan burials at Novosel’ki cemetery:
kurgan 6, grave 4, sample I0232, male - R1a1a1b2 (Z93), mtDNA U5a1f2

Kurgan burials at Uvarovka I cemetery:
kurgan 2, grave 1, sample I0424, male - R1a1a1b2 (Z93); mtDNA T2b4

Kurgan burials at Rozhdestvenno I cemetery:
kurgan 5 grave 7, sample I0234, female - mtDNA K1b2a
kurgan 4 grave 4, skeleton 2, sample I0235, female - mtDNA I1a1

 

Alekanovo inscription


Alekanovo inscription

The Alekanovo inscription is a group of undeciphered characters found in the Russian village of Alekanovo. The characters were inscribed on a small clay pot 15 cm high, located in a Slavic burial site. The inscription was dated by Gorodtsov to 10th–11th century AD.

 

Tagar kultura, c. 800 - 200 BC / Tashtyk kultura, c. 0 - 400 AD

Y-DNA R1a1


Tagar kultura - Tashtyk kultura


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