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Indus Valley Civilisation


Dravidian people


Y-chromosome L

Dravidian people

According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam. According to Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza, proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent. According to Mikhail Andronov, Dravidian languages were brought to India at the beginning of the third millennium BCE.

Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture."[36] at ca. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present, which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the Fertile Crescent" and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the Elamite and Dravidic populations."

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East." Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."

According to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14 and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1) in Dravidian populations indicates the spread of the Dravidian language into India from west Asia."

Asko Parpola, who regards the Harappans to have been Dravidian, notes that Mehrgarh (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE), to the west of the Indus River valley, is a precursor of the Indus Valley Civilisation, whose inhabitants migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.

Dravidian languages

Dravidian languages

Mehrgarh, c 7000 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA L



Indus Valley Civilisation, c. 2600 - 1900 BC

The Indus Valley civilisation (2,600-1,900 BCE) located both in Pakistan and India is often identified as having been Dravidian. Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers Henry Heras, Kamil Zvelebil, Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE, i.e. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested, based on computer analysis, an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language. Knorozov's suggestion was preceded by the work of Henry Heras, who suggested several readings of signs based on a proto-Dravidian assumption.

The Pashupati seal from the Indus Valley Civilization

Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family". Parpola led a Finnish team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish, "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script.

2,700 Year Old Yogi in Samadhi Found in Indus Valley Civilization Archaeological Site

The 2,700 year old skeletal remains of an ancient yogi sitting in samadhi have been found in an Indus valley civilization archeological site located at Balathal, Rajasthan.


Many Indus Valley seals represent pictures of yogis sitting in a lotus position. If we see the skeletal remains of the yogi above, we can note that his fingers are in gyana mudra (with thumb touching index finger), resting on his knees as well.

The Seven Mother Goddess from the Indus Valley Civilization & Seven Goddesses of Birth, surrogate mother of the first men, from the Sumer.

  • Preceded by; Ubaid, Elam, BMAC

Bhirrana - Hakra Ware culture, 8th - 7th millennium BCE

Bhirrana or Birhana is a small village located in Fatehabad District, in the Indian state of Haryana.

Hakra Ware has been found at Bhirrana, and is pre-Harappan, dating to the 8th-7th millennium BCE. Hakra Ware culture is a material culture which is contemporaneous with the early Harappan Ravi phase culture (3300-2800 BCE) of the Indus Valley.


Harappa, c. 2600 - 1900 BC


Mohendžo Daro - Kukkutarma, c. 2600 - 1800 BC

Mohendžo Daro (engleski: Moenjodaro) je povijesni grad na donjem toku Inda u današnjem Pakistanu, koji je u razdoblju od 2600. pr. Kr. do 1800. pr. Kr. bio dio indske kulture. U cijelom gradu nisu nađeni tragovi arhitekture svjetovnih niti duhovnih vladara. Odnosno, ništa takvog se nije moglo potvrditi dovoljno utemeljenim indicijama i činjenicama. No upravo je to, misli Michael Jansen, profesor povijesti urbanizma u Aachenu i German University of Technology u Omanu te savjetnik UNESCO-a za svjetsku kulturnu baštinu, senzacionalno u tom gradu: iako su morali biti vrlo bogati, stanovnici su se odrekli monumentalne arhitekture. Nema palača, nema hramova. Zaštitni je znak Mohenja Dara izostanak bilo kakva graditeljskog samoveličanja.

Mohenjo Daro is also called Kukkutarma

Iravatham Mahadevan presented  a paper called “Akam and Puram: ‘Address’ Signs of the Indus Script” in 2010 at the International Tamil Conference. In his paper, amongst many things, Iravatham Mahadevan discusses the original name of Mohenjo Daro.

After reading and understanding his paper, in my own words, here is a summary of what and how he found out the original name of Mohenjo Daro…

Many seals with cock inscriptions were discovered in Mohenjo Daro. Because of the repeated occurrence of cocks in the seals, it is fair to assume that cocks played an important role in the city and its culture. One of the seals found in Mohenjo Daro is shown below in this post.

Thomas Burrow was an Indologist at the University of Oxford. He had published various books and papers in the field of linguistics and Indology. ‘Armaka’ is a Sanskrit word which means ‘ruined city’. In one of his papers, Thomas Burrow published a list of ruined cities mentioned in ancient Sanskrit literature – he did this by identifying all the cities ending with ‘armaka’ in the ancient Sanskrit literature.

It is safe to assume that most of the ruined cities mention in ancient sanskrit literature  must have belonged to the Indus Valley Civilization – because at the time of writing these ancient texts, most of the Indus Valley Cities must have been in a ruined state – and also at the time of writing these texts there were no Vedic cities in such ruined state.

One of the cities mentioned in the list of ruined cities composed by Thomas Burrow is ‘Kukkutarmaka’. ‘Kukkut’ in the Proto Dravidian language means ‘cock’. Hence ‘Kukkutarmaka’ mentioned in the list means ‘ruined city of cocks’.

In the seal shown in this blog post, the diamond shape inscription in the front of the two cocks, is the ideogram for ‘city’ (in the Indus Valley Script). And we already know that the word for cocks in Proto Dravidian language is ‘Kukkut’. And so Mohenjo Daro, during the Indus Valley Civilization times, was probably called ‘Kukkutarma’ i.e. ‘city of cocks’.

Kukkutarma = City of Cocks = Mohenjo Daro (in Indus Valley Civilization times)
Kukkutarmaka = Runied City of Cocks = Mohenjo Daro (after the end of Indus Civilization times)

Decline of the Harappan Culture

After the discovery of the IVC in the 1920s, it was immediately associated with the indigenous Dasyu inimical to the Rigvedic tribes in numerous hymns of the Rigveda. Mortimer Wheeler interpreted the presence of many unburied corpses found in the top levels of Mohenjo-daro as the victims of a warlike conquest, and famously stated that "Indra stands accused" of the destruction of the IVC. The association of the IVC with the city-dwelling Dasyus remains alluring because the assumed timeframe of the first Indo-Aryan migration into India corresponds neatly with the period of decline of the IVC seen in the archaeological record. The discovery of the advanced, urban IVC however changed the 19th-century view of early Indo-Aryan migration as an "invasion" of an advanced culture at the expense of a "primitive" aboriginal population to a gradual acculturation of nomadic "barbarians" on an advanced urban civilisation.



The Dahae may be connected to the Dasas (Sanskrit दास Dāsa), mentioned in ancient Hindu texts such as the Rigveda as enemies of the Ārya.

Berossus's biography of Cyrus the Great (c. 589–530 BCE) claims that he was killed by Dahae archers near the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river (modern Uzbekistan/Kazakhstan). Later sources, such as Alexander the Great and Strabo also claimed that some of the Dahae were located near the Jaxartes. The Encyclopedia Iranica considers that the Dahae "were said to have lived in ... wastes northeast of Bactria and east of Sogdiana. At least some of the Dahae must thus be placed along the eastern fringes of the Karakum desert, near ancient Margiana..." This suggests that elements of the Dahae were near neighbours of a now-obscure Bronze Age civilisation known to archaeologists as the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC).

Karl Heinrich Tzschucke in 1806, in his translations of the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, noted etymological and phonological parallels between dasa and the ethonyms of the Dahae – Persian داها; Sanskrit Dasa; Latin Dahae; Greek Δάοι Daoi, Δάαι, Δᾶαι Daai and Δάσαι Dasai – a people who lived on the south-eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in ancient times (and from whom modern Dehestan/Dehistan takes its name). Likewise Max Muller proposed that dasa referred to indigenous peoples living in South Asia before the arrival of the Aryans.

Yaz culture, c. 1500 - 1000 BC

Yaz culture - Fire temple



Ashurism is a term referencing devotion to the god Ashur. King Ushpia (c. 2030 BC), is accredited as the founder of the Temple of Ashur, located in the city-state of Aššur.

In Zoroastrianism Ashur is equated with Ahura Mazda.



  • Ahura Mazda - əˌhʊrəˌmæzdə - The literal meaning of the word Ahura is "mighty" or "lord", and Mazda is "wisdom". (Ashur-Dan)
  • Ahriman - Aŋra Mainiiu - Destructive spirit in Zoroastrianism (Anglicised pronunciation: /ˈɑːrɪmən/). (Ari-men - Aryan)

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