Indus Valley Civilisation

Dravidian people - Y-DNA L


Y-chromosome L


Dravidian people

According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam. According to Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza, proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent. According to Mikhail Andronov, Dravidian languages were brought to India at the beginning of the third millennium BCE.

Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture."[36] at ca. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present, which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the Fertile Crescent" and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the Elamite and Dravidic populations."

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East." Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."

According to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14 and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1) in Dravidian populations indicates the spread of the Dravidian language into India from west Asia."

Asko Parpola, who regards the Harappans to have been Dravidian, notes that Mehrgarh (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE), to the west of the Indus River valley, is a precursor of the Indus Valley Civilisation, whose inhabitants migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.

Dravidian languages

Dravidian languages


Altyndepe, c. 3000 BC


Altyndepe

Namazga V and Altyndepe were in contact with the Late Harappan culture (ca. 2000-1600 BC), and Sarianidi affiliates the site with Indo Iranians. Masson (1988) views the culture as having a Proto-Dravidian affiliation. The site is notable for the remains of its "proto-Zoroastrian" ziggurat.

Models of two-wheeled carts from c. 3000 BC found at Altyndepe are the earliest complete evidence of wheeled transport in Central Asia, though model wheels have come from contexts possibly somewhat earlier. Judging by the type of harness, carts were initially pulled by oxen, or a bull. However camels were domesticated within the BMAC. A model of a cart drawn by a camel of c. 2200 BC was found at Altyndepe.

For several decades scientists excavate ancient settlement Altyndepe that situated some kilometers away from Tedjen city. Altyndepe translates like “gold hill”, because there was found a lot of gold jewelry. The city prospered during the Bronze Age, more than 4-6 thousand years ago.

Nowadays there’re formless clay hills on the large territory of ancient settlement. But all the hills together form a single system of architectural symbols and patterns. That’s why settlement often call as Turkmen Stonehenge.

The plan of the settlement

Scientists can’t tell the name of the country and what language its people spoke. But excavations revealed that settlement was well fortified: there were heavy defensive walls with towers. The main material for constructions was adobe bricks that used for house buildings.

There were a lot of blocks inside the city and only representatives of specific profession can live there. For example there was craftsmen block, ceramists block and so on.  

Ordinary people lived in large apartment house very closely. Each house has utility, living rooms, kitchens and small patios. Rich people lived in the western part of the city and their buildings differed greatly. There were large rectangular houses and each family lived in their own house.

Cult center

The territory of the city was more than 46 hectare. That’s why scientists considered that there had to be temple. Some years was spent to find the temple. Near it was the whole complex with centre of the tower with 4 stages. Its height was 12 meters and there was altar on the top of it.

Priests used the complex for observation of stars and planets. By received data priests determined the timing of irrigation and supervised agricultural work. The complex was devoted to the god of the moon as during the excavation was found golden bull's head with silver horns and moon in the forehead made from turquoise.

   

  • Preceded by; Old Europe > Uruk/Elam

 

Gonur Tepe, c, 2500 BC


Gonur Tepe

 

Namazga-Tepe, c, 2500 BC


Namazga-Tepe

 

BMAC or Oxus civilisation, c. 2300 - 1700 BC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


BMAC

The impressive size of the excavated remains of Gonur leads archaeologists to consider this the main city of the vast Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex. This is the ancient Bronze Age civilization known as the Oxus Civilization, after the great Central Asian river, the Oxus, also known as Amu Darya.

Gonur and other fortified towns and settlements are in a region now covering the modern states of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, northern Afganistan, and north eastern Iran, flourished between the 2300-1700 BC.

The late Greek born Russian archaeologist, Viktor Sarianidi is mainly credited with the discovery of these sites and the subsequent diggings that are now clubbed as the BMAC.

These archaeology digs that have been going on here since 1970, attests to an advanced civilization, with well fortified towns and palace and temple complexes within, water and drainage systems.

It is unfortunate that this is still little known, a human development as early as 2000 BC, which rivals Egypt, Mesopotamia and Indus civilizations, and historians and archaeologists preferring to continue their research on the latter.

Zoroastrianism,(1,2,3), might have begun here, or at least it's forerunner, the Aryan Indo-European worship of Dyus-Pitar (later the Greek Jupiter) and other divinities, and here, or a little later to the south, the Prophet Zarathustra is believed to have established a monotheistic religion, the worship of one God, he called Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord.

1-Zoroastrianism by George Foot Moore.The Harvard Theological Review.Vol 5 No 2, (April 1912) page 180-226.- “The religion whose adherents call themselves ‘worshippers of Mazda,’ the Wise God, and which we commonly name after it’s founder Zoroastrianism,is in many ways of peculiar interest. It is the only monotheistic religion of Indo-European origin,………..”

2-A History of Zoroastrianism:the Early Period. Mary Boyce. E J Brill, Leiden, The NetherLands. page 185 ”We do not understand Zarathushtra until we see in the Gathas the underlying cause of his zeal: the meeting with God…...he had seen and perceived the Lord.” Thus, Zoroastrianism is a revealed religion.

3-Zoroastrianism.John W.Waterhouse. Originally published by the Epworth Press, London.1934. Republished by The BookTree. 2006.- “The writer feels that the Christian heritage through Judaism has been enriched by the Prophet of Iran, who many centuries before the coming of Jesus Christ, prepared the way by proclaiming One God whose demand is ethical.”

  • Preceded by; Old Europe > Uruk/Elam > Altyndepe
  • We suggest; Y-DNA L & G, H, T


Yaz culture, c. 1500 - 1000 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T & R1a-M458


Yaz culture - Fire temple

 

Dahae

We suggest; Y-DNA R1a-M458

The Dahae may be connected to the Dasas ( Sanskrit दास Dāsa ), mentioned in ancient Hindu texts such as the Rigveda as enemies of the Ārya .

Berossus's biography of Cyrus the Great (c. 589–530 BCE) claims that he was killed by Dahae archers near the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river (modern Uzbekistan/Kazakhstan). Later sources, such as Alexander the Great and Strabo also claimed that some of the Dahae were located near the Jaxartes. The Encyclopedia Iranica considers that the Dahae "were said to have lived in ... wastes northeast of Bactria and east of Sogdiana. At least some of the Dahae must thus be placed along the eastern fringes of the Karakum desert, near ancient Margiana..." This suggests that elements of the Dahae were near neighbours of a now-obscure Bronze Age civilisation known to archaeologists as the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC). - Dahae

Karl Heinrich Tzschucke in 1806, in his translations of the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, noted etymological and phonological parallels between dasa and the ethonyms of the Dahae – Persian داها; Sanskrit Dasa; Latin Dahae; Greek Δάοι Daoi, Δάαι, Δᾶαι Daai and Δάσαι Dasai – a people who lived on the south-eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in ancient times (and from whom modern Dehestan/Dehistan takes its name). Likewise Max Muller proposed that dasa referred to indigenous peoples living in South Asia before the arrival of the Aryans.

 

Ashurism

Ashurism is a term referencing devotion to the god Ashur. King Ushpia (c. 2030 BC), is accredited as the founder of the Temple of Ashur, located in the city-state of Aššur.

In Zoroastrianism Ashur is equated with Ahura Mazda.

 

Zoroastrianism

  • Ahura Mazda - əˌhʊrəˌmæzdə - The literal meaning of the word Ahura is "mighty" or "lord", and Mazda is "wisdom". (Ashur-Dan)
  • Ahriman - Aŋra Mainiiu - Destructive spirit in Zoroastrianism (Anglicised pronunciation: /ˈɑːrɪmən/). (Ari-men - Aryan)

 

Rigvedic Demons

Karl Heinrich Tzschucke in 1806, in his translations of the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, noted etymological and phonological parallels between dasa and the ethonyms of the Dahae – Persian داها; Sanskrit Dasa; Latin Dahae; Greek Δάοι Daoi, Δάαι, Δᾶαι Daai and Δάσαι Dasai – a people who lived on the south-eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in ancient times (and from whom modern Dehestan/Dehistan takes its name). Likewise Max Muller proposed that dasa referred to indigenous peoples living in South Asia before the arrival of the Aryans.

Danu (Asura) - Ashur-Dan

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vritra, the demonic serpent slain by Indra. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of Kasyapa.

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neutral, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54. - Danu

Dasa

Dasa or das is a Sanskrit language word found in ancient Hindu texts such as the Rigveda and Arthashastra. It usually means either "enemy" or "servant".

A third usage, related to the second, is "servant of God", "devotee," "votary" or "one who has surrendered to God"; dasa may be a suffix of a given name to indicate a "servant" of a revered person or deity.

In some contexts, dasa is interchangeable with the Sanskrit words dasyu and asura, both of which have been translated into other languages as words equivalent to "demon", "harmful supernatural force", "slave", "servant" or "barbarian", depending on the context in which the word is used. - Dasas

Vritra

In the early Vedic religion, Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र, vṛtra, lit. 'enveloper') is a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and adversary of Indra. In Hinduism, Vritra is identified as an Asura. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi (Sanskrit: अहि ahi, lit. 'snake'). He appears as a dragon blocking the course of the rivers and is heroically slain by Indra. - Vritra

Danava

In Vedic mythology, the Danavas (Balinese Hinduism Dewi Danu) were a race descending from Daksha.

The Danavas were the sons of Danu, who in turn was a daughter of Daksha. Danu is connected with the waters of heavens and she is probably associated with the formless, primordial waters that existed prior to the creation. The name is connected with the PIE root *danu, "river" or "any flowing liquid" and is associated with the Danu (Asura). Under the leadership of Bali and others, the Danavas revolted against the Devatas (Devas). Despite initial successes, the Danava were defeated by the god Vamana who in dwarf form deceived their leader Bali. The Danavas were not universally considered to be evil, individual Danava could be classified as good or bad. - Danavas


Mehrgarh, c 7000 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA L


Mehrgarh

 

Indus Valley Civilisation, c. 2700 - 1750 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T & R1a-Z93

Na obalama rijeke Inda, u današnjem Pakistanu, pojavila se visokorazvijena urbana civilizacija između 2700. i 1750. pr. Kr. Njezina središta su bila gradovi Mohendžo Daro, Harappa i Lothal, s po 40.000 stanovnika. Goleme javne građevine, građene od opeka od blata, pokazuju da je ova civilizacija bila veoma napredna. Vrlo malo znamo o svakodnevnom životu stanovnika doline Inda, osim da su trgovali sa Sumeranima i prakticirali jedan od prvih oblika hinduizma. Njihova je civilizacija neobjašnjivo propala nakon 1750. pr. Kr -

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Indus Valley Civilisation


The Pashupati seal from the Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley civilisation (2,600-1,900 BCE) located both in Pakistan and India is often identified as having been Dravidian. Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers Henry Heras, Kamil Zvelebil, Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE, i.e. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification.

Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested, based on computer analysis, an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language. Knorozov's suggestion was preceded by the work of Henry Heras, who suggested several readings of signs based on a proto-Dravidian assumption.

Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family". Parpola led a Finnish team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish, "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script.

     


The Seven Mother Goddess from the Indus Valley Civilization & Seven Goddesses of Birth, surrogate mother of the first men, from the Sumer.

  • Preceded by; Ubaid, Elam, BMAC

 

Harappa, c. 2600 - 1900 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T & R1a-Z93

 
Harappa

 

Mohendžo Daro - Kukkutarma, c. 2600 - 1800 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T

Mohendžo Daro (engleski: Moenjodaro) je povijesni grad na donjem toku Inda u današnjem Pakistanu, koji je u razdoblju od 2600. pr. Kr. do 1800. pr. Kr. bio dio indske kulture. U cijelom gradu nisu nađeni tragovi arhitekture svjetovnih niti duhovnih vladara. Odnosno, ništa takvog se nije moglo potvrditi dovoljno utemeljenim indicijama i činjenicama. No upravo je to, misli Michael Jansen, profesor povijesti urbanizma u Aachenu i German University of Technology u Omanu te savjetnik UNESCO-a za svjetsku kulturnu baštinu, senzacionalno u tom gradu: iako su morali biti vrlo bogati, stanovnici su se odrekli monumentalne arhitekture. Nema palača, nema hramova. Zaštitni je znak Mohenja Dara izostanak bilo kakva graditeljskog samoveličanja.

  • Preceded by; Ubaid, Elam, BMAC

 

Gandhara grave culture, c. 1500 - 500 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T & R1a-Z93


Gandhara grave culture

 

Punjab Vedic Era

Vedic society was tribal in character. A number of families constituted a grama, a number of gramas a vis (clan) and a number of clans a Jana (tribe). The Janas, led by Rajans, were in constant intertribal warfare. From this warfare arose larger groupings of peoples ruled by great chieftains and kings. As a result, a new political philosophy of conquest and empire grew, which traced the origin of the state to the exigencies of war.


Decline of the Harappan Culture

It cannot be said for sure how the Indus Valley Civilization perished. But among the many possible theories, 2 theories have gained credence. The first cause could be an invasion by a barbaric tribe, probably the Aryans, and the other cause could be climatic changes which caused the Indus Valley to be flooded very often.

The city of Harappa was divided into two parts- The Citadel, which was home to the great public bath as well as large residential buildings that housed around 5000 people. It also had two large assembly halls but there is no evidence of the presence of any kings, priests, armies, palaces or temples. So the purpose of the Citadel is still unclear. The Lower City- was laid out in a grid like pattern. Most people lived here and seemed to have been traders or artisans.

They resided with others who were in the same profession as theirs. Potters’ kilns, dyers’ vats, metal working, bead making, shell making suggest that the people of Harappa had a wide range of occupations. Materials were procured from far-away places to make a wide range of things such as seals, beads and other artifacts.

Seals which were discovered during excavations had pictures of Gods, animals and other inscriptions. Some of these seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods. Goods made in the Indus valley traveled as far as Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), Afghanistan and other parts of India. Jewelery that was discovered in the area suggests that the people of the Indus Valley had access to gold, copper and semi-precious stones.

Aryan invasion

The excavation of the Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and Lothal sites of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) in the 1920, showed that northern India already had an advanced culture when the Indo-Aryans migrated into the area. The theory changed from a migration of advanced Aryans towards a primitive population, to a migration of nomadic people into an advanced urban civilization, comparable to the Germanic migrations during the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, or the Kassite invasion of Babylonia.

This possibility was for a short time seen as a hostile invasion into northern India. The decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation at precisely the period in history in which the Indo-Aryan migrations probably took place, seemed to provide independent support of such an invasion. This argument was proposed by the mid-20th century archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, who interpreted the presence of many unburied corpses found in the top levels of Mohenjo-daro as the victims of conquest wars, and who famously stated that the god "Indra stands accused" of the destruction of the Civilisation.

This position was soon left by the scholarly community, noticing that no evidence was found, and that the skeletons were found to be hasty interments, not massacred victims. Wheeler himself also nuanced this interpretation in later publications, stating "This is a possibility, but it can't be proven, and it may not be correct." Wheeler further notes that the unburied corpses may indicate an event in the final phase of human occupation of Mohenjo-Daro, and that there-after the place was uninhabited, but that the decay of Mohenjo-Daro has to be ascribed to structural causes such as salinisation.

Aryan migration

In the later 20th century, ideas were refined along with data accrual, and migration and acculturation were seen as the methods whereby Indo-Aryans and their language and culture spread into northwest India around 1500 BC. The term "invasion" is only being used nowadays by opponents of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory. Michael Witzel:
...it has been supplanted by much more sophisticated models over the past few decades [...] philologists first, and archaeologists somewhat later, noticed certain inconsistencies in the older theory and tried to find new explanations, a new version of the immigration theories.

These changes were thought to be in line with changes in thinking about language transfer in general, such as the migration of the Greeks into Greece (between 2100 and 1600 BC) and their adoption of a syllabic script, Linear B, from the pre-existing Linear A, with the purpose of writing Mycenaean Greek, or the Indo-Europeanization of Western Europe (in stages between 2200 and 1300 BC).

Indra


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