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Indus Valley Civilisation

 

Dravidian people

Y-DNA L


Y-chromosome L


Dravidian people

According to David McAlpin, the Dravidian languages were brought to India by immigration into India from Elam. According to Renfrew and Cavalli-Sforza, proto-Dravidian was brought to India by farmers from the Iranian part of the Fertile Crescent. According to Mikhail Andronov, Dravidian languages were brought to India at the beginning of the third millennium BCE.

Kivisild et al. (1999) note that "a small fraction of the West Eurasian mtDNA lineages found in Indian populations can be ascribed to a relatively recent admixture."[36] at ca. 9,300 ± 3,000 years before present, which coincides with "the arrival to India of cereals domesticated in the Fertile Crescent" and "lends credence to the suggested linguistic connection between the Elamite and Dravidic populations."

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East." Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India – likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found."

According to Palanichamy et al. (2015), "The presence of mtDNA haplogroups (HV14 and U1a) and Y-chromosome haplogroup (L1) in Dravidian populations indicates the spread of the Dravidian language into India from west Asia."

Asko Parpola, who regards the Harappans to have been Dravidian, notes that Mehrgarh (7000 BCE to c. 2500 BCE), to the west of the Indus River valley, is a precursor of the Indus Valley Civilisation, whose inhabitants migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia.

Dravidian languages

Dravidian languages


Mehrgarh, c 7000 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA L


Mehrgarh

 

Indus Valley Civilisation, c. 2700 - 1750 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T & R1a-Z93

Na obalama rijeke Inda, u današnjem Pakistanu, pojavila se visokorazvijena urbana civilizacija između 2700. i 1750. pr. Kr. Njezina središta su bila gradovi Mohendžo Daro, Harappa i Lothal, s po 40.000 stanovnika. Goleme javne građevine, građene od opeka od blata, pokazuju da je ova civilizacija bila veoma napredna. Vrlo malo znamo o svakodnevnom životu stanovnika doline Inda, osim da su trgovali sa Sumeranima i prakticirali jedan od prvih oblika hinduizma. Njihova je civilizacija neobjašnjivo propala nakon 1750. pr. Kr -

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Indus Valley Civilisation


The Pashupati seal from the Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley civilisation (2,600-1,900 BCE) located both in Pakistan and India is often identified as having been Dravidian. Cultural and linguistic similarities have been cited by researchers Henry Heras, Kamil Zvelebil, Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan as being strong evidence for a proto-Dravidian origin of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. The discovery in Tamil Nadu of a late Neolithic (early 2nd millennium BCE, i.e. post-dating Harappan decline) stone celt allegedly marked with Indus signs has been considered by some to be significant for the Dravidian identification.

Yuri Knorozov surmised that the symbols represent a logosyllabic script and suggested, based on computer analysis, an underlying agglutinative Dravidian language as the most likely candidate for the underlying language. Knorozov's suggestion was preceded by the work of Henry Heras, who suggested several readings of signs based on a proto-Dravidian assumption.

Linguist Asko Parpola writes that the Indus script and Harappan language are "most likely to have belonged to the Dravidian family". Parpola led a Finnish team in investigating the inscriptions using computer analysis. Based on a proto-Dravidian assumption, they proposed readings of many signs, some agreeing with the suggested readings of Heras and Knorozov (such as equating the "fish" sign with the Dravidian word for fish, "min") but disagreeing on several other readings. A comprehensive description of Parpola's work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Script.


2,700 Year Old Yogi in Samadhi Found in Indus Valley Civilization Archaeological Site

The 2,700 year old skeletal remains of an ancient yogi sitting in samadhi have been found in an Indus valley civilization archeological site located at Balathal, Rajasthan.

Many Indus Valley seals represent pictures of yogis sitting in a lotus position. If we see the skeletal remains of the yogi above, we can note that his fingers are in gyana mudra (with thumb touching index finger), resting on his knees as well.

     


The Seven Mother Goddess from the Indus Valley Civilization & Seven Goddesses of Birth, surrogate mother of the first men, from the Sumer.

  • Preceded by; Ubaid, Elam, BMAC

 

Harappa, c. 2600 - 1900 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T & R1a-Z93

 
Harappa

 

Mohendžo Daro - Kukkutarma, c. 2600 - 1800 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T

Mohendžo Daro (engleski: Moenjodaro) je povijesni grad na donjem toku Inda u današnjem Pakistanu, koji je u razdoblju od 2600. pr. Kr. do 1800. pr. Kr. bio dio indske kulture. U cijelom gradu nisu nađeni tragovi arhitekture svjetovnih niti duhovnih vladara. Odnosno, ništa takvog se nije moglo potvrditi dovoljno utemeljenim indicijama i činjenicama. No upravo je to, misli Michael Jansen, profesor povijesti urbanizma u Aachenu i German University of Technology u Omanu te savjetnik UNESCO-a za svjetsku kulturnu baštinu, senzacionalno u tom gradu: iako su morali biti vrlo bogati, stanovnici su se odrekli monumentalne arhitekture. Nema palača, nema hramova. Zaštitni je znak Mohenja Dara izostanak bilo kakva graditeljskog samoveličanja.

  • Preceded by; Ubaid, Elam, BMAC

 

Gandhara grave culture, c. 1500 - 500 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G, H, L, T & R1a-Z93


Gandhara grave culture

 

Punjab Vedic Era

Vedic society was tribal in character. A number of families constituted a grama, a number of gramas a vis (clan) and a number of clans a Jana (tribe). The Janas, led by Rajans, were in constant intertribal warfare. From this warfare arose larger groupings of peoples ruled by great chieftains and kings. As a result, a new political philosophy of conquest and empire grew, which traced the origin of the state to the exigencies of war.


Decline of the Harappan Culture

It cannot be said for sure how the Indus Valley Civilization perished. But among the many possible theories, 2 theories have gained credence. The first cause could be an invasion by a barbaric tribe, probably the Aryans, and the other cause could be climatic changes which caused the Indus Valley to be flooded very often.

The city of Harappa was divided into two parts- The Citadel, which was home to the great public bath as well as large residential buildings that housed around 5000 people. It also had two large assembly halls but there is no evidence of the presence of any kings, priests, armies, palaces or temples. So the purpose of the Citadel is still unclear. The Lower City- was laid out in a grid like pattern. Most people lived here and seemed to have been traders or artisans.

They resided with others who were in the same profession as theirs. Potters’ kilns, dyers’ vats, metal working, bead making, shell making suggest that the people of Harappa had a wide range of occupations. Materials were procured from far-away places to make a wide range of things such as seals, beads and other artifacts.

Seals which were discovered during excavations had pictures of Gods, animals and other inscriptions. Some of these seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods. Goods made in the Indus valley traveled as far as Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), Afghanistan and other parts of India. Jewelery that was discovered in the area suggests that the people of the Indus Valley had access to gold, copper and semi-precious stones.

Aryan invasion

The excavation of the Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and Lothal sites of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) in the 1920, showed that northern India already had an advanced culture when the Indo-Aryans migrated into the area. The theory changed from a migration of advanced Aryans towards a primitive population, to a migration of nomadic people into an advanced urban civilization, comparable to the Germanic migrations during the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, or the Kassite invasion of Babylonia.

This possibility was for a short time seen as a hostile invasion into northern India. The decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation at precisely the period in history in which the Indo-Aryan migrations probably took place, seemed to provide independent support of such an invasion. This argument was proposed by the mid-20th century archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, who interpreted the presence of many unburied corpses found in the top levels of Mohenjo-daro as the victims of conquest wars, and who famously stated that the god "Indra stands accused" of the destruction of the Civilisation.

This position was soon left by the scholarly community, noticing that no evidence was found, and that the skeletons were found to be hasty interments, not massacred victims. Wheeler himself also nuanced this interpretation in later publications, stating "This is a possibility, but it can't be proven, and it may not be correct." Wheeler further notes that the unburied corpses may indicate an event in the final phase of human occupation of Mohenjo-Daro, and that there-after the place was uninhabited, but that the decay of Mohenjo-Daro has to be ascribed to structural causes such as salinisation.

Aryan migration

In the later 20th century, ideas were refined along with data accrual, and migration and acculturation were seen as the methods whereby Indo-Aryans and their language and culture spread into northwest India around 1500 BC. The term "invasion" is only being used nowadays by opponents of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory. Michael Witzel:
...it has been supplanted by much more sophisticated models over the past few decades [...] philologists first, and archaeologists somewhat later, noticed certain inconsistencies in the older theory and tried to find new explanations, a new version of the immigration theories.

These changes were thought to be in line with changes in thinking about language transfer in general, such as the migration of the Greeks into Greece (between 2100 and 1600 BC) and their adoption of a syllabic script, Linear B, from the pre-existing Linear A, with the purpose of writing Mycenaean Greek, or the Indo-Europeanization of Western Europe (in stages between 2200 and 1300 BC).

Indra


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