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Julio-Claudian dynasty

Emperor Augustus

According to the historian Suetonius in his imperial biographies, Emperor Augustus was quite short and slender, his skin was slightly tanned and "between dark and fair" (Mediterranoid) but he had light eyes - pale grey according to Pliny the Younger - and blond hair.




While the ancient Romans did have a large population with Alpine traits (a lot of old Roman busts show Alpine broadheads), it's obvious that Emperor Augustus wasn't one of them. I can't see anything Alpine in his face, nor does it make sense that a racially pure Italian in those times would be "Atlanto" anything.

Augustus has a definite Dinaric look to him - and there was a lot of that in the Roman gene-pool, a trait that you still see in Central Italy every now and then. The famous "Roman nose" was a big ol' Dinaric nose. This isn't so obvious in Augustus, but you really see it on the big-nosed statues of his family members.

  • Emperor Augustus = Mediterranean + Dinaric race

Emperor Tiberius

Emperor Tiberius, the stepson and heir of Augustus, is up next - unlike his stepdad, he was pretty obviously Dinaric.



A classic Roman nose, very Dinaric traits - his face would be at home anywhere in Central Italy or the Balkans. Probably some Alpine influence in his head shape, but the Dinaric is dominant here.

The "Roman nose" is obviously of Dinaric origin, a racial type that appears a lot on Roman busts and coin profiles.

Tiberius, who was a descendent of the ancient Claudii family, is a much "purer" example of Roman aristocracy than the plebian Augustus.

  • Emperor Tiberius = Dinaric + Alpine race

Emperor Caligula

Caligula, or Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, was the first really Julio-Claudian emperor, descended from both those families. He clearly inherited facial features from both his forerunners:



Caligula - Game of Thrones, boy-king

Caligula had an interesting face - we can see the almost Nordic features of Augustus, the pinched inbred face of Tiberius, the sunken temples and broad forehead of Alpinid race. His sharp nose could be slightly Dinaric, but not much. His large broad-browed head, a feature you see in busts of other Roman statesmen. Caligula also had a very pale (expallido) complexion, according to Suetonius. His general look is fairly Italic.

Augustus, was mostly plebeian - his grandmother was Caesar's sister, but the rest of his ancestry was middle-class plebs. On other hand, Tiberius was a pure-blooded patrician of the ancient Claudii family. Augustus could fit in anywhere in Eastern or Northern Europe, while Tiberius and (to a lesser degree) Caligula have these pinched, inbred, Central Italian faces.

In the case of Caligula, on the other hand, neither Suetonius nor any of his other critics mentions his eye color, which may have been blue-gray (or caesius in Latin), since this color of the eyes was apparently a dominant Julio-Claudian family trait, as we know specifically in the case of Claudius (Pliny, HN. 11.142) and Nero (Suet. Nero. 51). In his imperial biographies, Suetonius notes only that Caligula's "eyes and temples were deep-set" (oculis et temporibus concavis). Interestingly, in the physiognomic theory of the Greeks, blue-gray eyes were associated with a keen night vision (Pliny, HN 11.142-43). None of the surviving literary sources indicates the color of Caligula's hair, though it may have been a dark blond or light brown, not unlike that of Augustus, whom was said to have hair that was subflavus, which is probably to be understood today as "dirty blond".

Emperor Caligula = Mediterranean + Alpine + Dinaric race

Caligula as a baby

Caligula's older brother

Julia (gens)

The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which Tullus Hostilius removed to Rome upon the destruction of Alba Longa. The Julii also existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a very ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. Their connection with Bovillae is also implied by the sacrarium, or chapel, which the emperor Tiberius dedicated to the gens Julia in the town, and in which he placed the statue of Augustus. Some of the Julii may have settled at Bovillae after the fall of Alba Longa.

As it became the fashion in the later times of the Republic to claim a divine origin for the most distinguished of the Roman gentes, it was contended that Iulus, the mythical ancestor of the race, was the same as Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, and founder of Alba Longa. Aeneas was, in turn, the son of Venus and Anchises. In order to prove the identity of Ascanius and Iulus, recourse was had to etymology, some specimens of which the reader curious in such matters will find in Servius.


Julius dynasty

Haplogroups I2a

Haplogroup I2a - Dinaric

Danites - Dardani


Danites - Julii

Julian calendar

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