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An amphictyonic league (“league of neighbors”) was an association of neighboring states formed around a religious center. The most important was the Delphic Amphictyony. Originally composed of 12 tribes dwelling around Thermopylae, including Phocis, the league was centered first on the shrine of Demeter and later became associated with the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. The League doctrine required that no member would be entirely wiped out in war and no water supply of any member would be cut even in wartime. It did not prevent members from fighting about the dominance over the temples.

In 356 BC Phocians captured and sacked Delphi, and sacred war was declared against them. After a ten-year war the Phocians were expelled from the League in 346 BC and their two votes were given to Macedonians who had helped to defeat them. Philip II of Macedonia used its power to further his expansionist conquests in Greece. The coin above was struck in the year of or the year after Philip II’s son Alexander (the Great) became King of Macedon.

On the coin is Demeter wreathed with ears of wheat and veiled. On the reverse is Apollo Pythios, laureate and wearing a chiton, seated on omphalos draped with himation; his elbow rests on a lyre and his hand supports his chin; a long laurel branch rests diagonally across him; in the field is tripod: ΑΜΦI - KTIO - NΩN inscription in exergue.


Argead dynasty

The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Greek royal house. They were the founders and the ruling dynasty of Macedon from about 700 to 310 BC. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece, hence the name Argeads or Argives. Initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership the kingdom of Macedonia gradually gained predominance throughout Greece, defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India. The mythical founder of the Argead dynasty is King Caranus.

The words "Argead" and "Argive" derive (via Latin Argīvus) from the Greek Ἀργεῖος (Argeios), "of or from Argos", which is first attested in Homer, where it was also used as a collective designation for the Greeks ("Ἀργείων Δαναῶν", Argive Danaans). The Argead dynasty claimed descent from the Temenids of Argos, in the Peloponnese, whose legendary ancestor was Temenus, the great-great-grandson of Heracles. In the excavations of the royal Palace at Aegae Manolis Andronikos discovered in the "tholos" room (according to some scholars "tholos" was the throne room) an inscription relating to that belief. This is testified by Herodotus, in The Histories, where he mentions that three brothers of the lineage of Temenus, Gauanes, Aeropus and Perdiccas, fled from Argos to the Illyrians and then to Upper Macedonia, to a town called Lebaea, where they served the king. The latter asked them to leave his territory, believing in an omen that something great would happen to Perdiccas. The boys went to another part of Macedonia, near the garden of Midas, above which mount Bermio stands. There they made their abode and slowly formed their own kingdom. Herodotus also relates the incident of the participation of Alexander I of Macedon in the Olympic Games in 504 or 500 BC where the participation of the Macedonian king was contested by participants on the grounds that he was not Greek. The Hellanodikai, however, after examining his Argead claim confirmed that the Macedonians were Greeks and allowed him to participate.

Deucalion Pyrrha Zeus
Thyia Pandora Protogeneia


Dorus Xuthus Aeolus Magnes Macedon Graecus Aethlius
Aegimius Achaeus Ion Endymion
Dymas Pamphylus Aetolus


Thyia - Thuia


Tjuyu is believed to be a descendant of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, and she held many official roles in the interwoven religion and government of Ancient Egypt. She was involved in many religious cults; her titles included 'Singer of Hathor' and 'Chief of the Entertainers' of both Amun and Min. She also held the influential offices of Superintendent of the Harem of the god Min of Akhmin and of Amun of Thebes.

Thyia (Ancient Greek: Θυία Thuia) was a female figure associated with cults of several major gods.

In the Delphic tradition, Thyia was the naiad of a spring on Mount Parnassos in Phocis, daughter of the river god Cephissus. Her shrine was the site for the gathering of the Thyiades. She was said to have been the first to sacrifice to Dionysus, and to celebrate orgies in his honour. Hence, the Attic women, who every year went to Mount Parnassus to celebrate the Dionysiac orgies with the Delphian Thyiades, received themselves the name of Thyades or Thyiades (synonymous with Maenads).

She was said to have been loved by Apollo and bore him Delphos, the eponymous founder of town Delphi, beside the oracular shrine. She was also closely associated with the prophetic Castalian Spring, from which she was sometimes said to have been born. Thyia was also related to Castalia, the nymph of the spring; Melaena, an alternative mother for Delphos; and the Corycian nymphs, Naiades of the springs of the holy Corycian Cave.

Thyia, Thuia = Tjuyu, Thuya or Thuyu

Makednos = Anen/Amanmašša - Manasseh

Danites - Tribe of Dan

Macedonian shields

Macedonian & Illyrian shields

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