Mesopotamia Bronze Age

In Mesopotamia, the Mesopotamian Bronze Age began about 3500 BC and ended with the Kassite period (c. 1500 BC – c. 1155 BC).

During the Early Bronze Age (3300-2100 BCE) the cities of Sumer became connected with the Mediterranean Sea  and Egypt and a world trade system came into effect that lasted over 1000 years, linking East Asia to the Aegean and beyond. It is even possible that this trade network carried the Egyptian Blue Lotus all the way to Thailand, presumably as a pharmaceutical. The evidence of this vast trade network is extensive yet it is only given a cursory glance in most history books.

From the time of the Akkadian Empire, around 2300 BCE, the objective of Mesopotamian rulers was to control the trade routes that linked Anatolia, Central Asia and the Mediterranean Sea with the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. These trade routes brought into the cities of Sumer not only tin and copper, the components of bronze, but also luxury goods such as lapis lazuli, silver and obsidian. In exchange for these resources out from Mesopotamia as trade goods went manufactured items, wool and bitumen. Much of this network had been active since Neolithic times when the obsidian trade began and the Bronze Age trade simply built upon the earlier tradition, linking disparate networks into a nearly worldwide system of commerce.

Ancient overland trade ventures would require many months of slow travel often with heavily laden donkeys. The extent of such journeys made necessary the establishment of trading colonies which helped spread Sumerian culture to all the surrounding lands. The best example of this are the Assyrian colonies established in Anatolia during the Middle Bronze Age (2100-1550 BCE). This practice of long term trading expeditions led to the spread of the cuneiform script of the Sumerians being adopted by many of the surrounding cultures. By the Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 BCE) the Semitic Akkadian language written in cuneiform was being used across the Near East as the language of commerce and diplomacy.

Together with this overland trade network were the sea routes of the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea. By way of the Gulf merchants during the Early Bronze Age had access to the Harappan people of the Indus Valley where they traded for cotton linens, golden ornamental items and jewelry. Some trade goods from Mesopotamia, such as the lotus, would make their way to East Asia as well. It is also known that merchants from Sumer traded with the peoples of the Arabic coast and islands such as Dilmun seeking spices and incense. This trade may even have reached the Horn of Africa where many exotic items, such as ostrich feathers, leopard skins and ivory, were to be had. Control over these Gulf trade routes led to the fabulous wealth of such cities as Ur.

 
Plodni polumjesec


Ubaid period, c. 6500 - 3800 BC


Ubaid period


So-called “Lizard” figurines, dating from ca. 4500 BC.
These figures were usually of women, slim, and often holding a child with an elongated head and slanted “coffee bean” eyes. Ears are not shown and the nose is only presented by two holes. Decoration is simple with bands of black/brown.


This bull was discovered in 1923 at Tell al-'Ubaid, close to the remains of the city of Ur. The bull was found among a group of objects at the foot of a mud brick platform that had originally supported a temple building dedicated to the goddess Ninhursag. The body of the bull originally had a wooden core, now decayed, which was covered in a thin layer of bitumen. Over this was hammered thin sheet copper (probably from Iran or Oman) secured with copper nails..


Shallow bowl typically found in graves from ca. 6000-5000 BC.

Earlier Ubaid: Hand-made wares, including fine buff or cream-slipped fabric decorated with thick dark paint with zones of geometric designs such as parallel lines in different directions, zigzags, and chevrons. Forms include bowls with and without ring bases, large dishes, sauceboats, beakers, and globular jars. For example below we have a shallow bowl typically found in graves from ca. 6000-5000 BC, the decoration was simple, bold and effective.


Painted jar dating from ca. 4500-4200 BC.

Later Ubaid: Wheel-made pottery often of a greenish hue, decorated with fine monochrome dark paint, used sparingly in broad black horizontal lines and simple curving shapes. Forms include large globular jars, shallow flaring bowls, round-bottomed bowls, and cups with flat bases. Below we have a painted jar dating from ca.  4500-4200 BC.


Pots from the last phase of Ubaid pottery.
Pottery with this type of design has been found in the Persian Gulf, and in southern Iran dating from ca. 5000 BC.

  • We suggest; Y-DNA E-Z830, L-M20, T1a & G2, H2


Eridu c. 4600 BC


Eridu

  • Preceded by; Old Europe, Anatolia
  • We suggest; Y-DNA I2a

 

Enki

Enki was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology. The name Ea is of Sumerian origin and was written by means of two signs signifying "house" and "water". Enki was the deity of water, intelligence, creation, and lord of the Apsu, the watery abyss.

Creation Myths

The main temple of Enki was the so-called e-engur-ra, the "house of the water-deep" in Eridu, which was in the wetlands of the Euphrates valley at some distance from the Persian Gulf - the Cradle of Civilization. His name is possibly an epithet bestowed on him for the creation of the first man, Adamu or Adapa.

He was the leader of the first sons of Anu who came down to Earth, playing a pivotal role in creating humans then saving them from the Deluge. According to Sumerian mythology, Enki allowed humanity to survive the Deluge designed to kill them. After Enlil and the rest of the Anunnaki, decided that Man would suffer total annihilation, he covertly rescued the human man Ziusudra by either instructing him to build some kind of an boat for his family, or by bringing him into the heavens in a magic boat. This is apparently the oldest surviving source of the Noah's Ark myth and other parallel Middle Eastern Deluge myths.

Flood Myths

Linked to flood myths, Enki was considered a god of life and replenishment, and was often depicted with streams of water emanating from his shoulders. Alongside him were trees symbolizing the male and female aspects of nature, each holding the male and female aspects of the 'Life Essence', which he, as apparent alchemist of the gods, would masterfully mix to create several beings that would live upon the face of the Earth.

Family

Enki's youngest son, Ningizzida, was Lord of the Tree of Truth, in Mesopotamia and played the role of Thoth in Egypt. The ancient Mystery School Teachings of Thoth were past down to his Initiates who became the priests. They hid the secret knowledge of creation, passing it down through the ages until their experiment was to end.

Symbols

Enki's emblem was two serpents entwined on a staff - the basis for the winged caduceus symbol used by modern Western medicine and the rod of Hermes. His symbols included a goat and a fish, which later combined into a single beast, the Capricorn, which became one of the signs of the zodiac. Enki's sacred number is 40.


Enki


Dilmun, c. late 4th millennium BC

Ancient traders


Dilmun

Dilmun, or Telmun, was an ancient Semitic-speaking country mentioned throughout the history of Mesopotamia from the 3rd millennium BC onwards. It is regarded as one of the oldest civilizations in the Middle East. Based on textual evidence, it is located in the Persian Gulf on a trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilisation, close to the sea and to artesian springs.

Dilmun was an important trading centre. At the height of its power, it controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes. According to some modern theories, the Sumerians regarded Dilmun as a sacred place, but that is never stated in any known ancient text. Dilmun was mentioned by the Mesopotamians as a trade partner, a source of copper, and a trade entrepôt.

The scholarly consensus is that Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the coastal regions of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This area is certainly what is meant by references to "Dilmun" among the lands conquered by King Sargon of Akkad and his descendants.

  • We suggest; Y-DNA T1a

 

Ancient Maritime & International Trade

We suggest; Y-DNA T1a


Ancient maritime history - Maritime history


Central Iran, c. 4000 BC

Chalcolithic vessels are unglazed bichrome pottery having a buff body decorated with dark paint. These early ceramics were made by hand in a variety of techniques, including coil, mold, and slab construction (the potters wheel had still not been invented). Decoration consists of geometric patterns, sometimes including motifs from nature. For example below we have storage jar decorated with mountain goats (ibex) from central Iran and dated to early 4000 BC.


Storage jar decorated with mountain goats (ibex) from Iran central and dated to early 4000 BC.

 

Godin Tepe


Godin Tepe

 

Lactose tolerance in India

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East." Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India - likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found." In contrast, Allentoft et al. (2015) found that lactose-tolerance was absent in the Yamnaya culture, noting that while "the Yamnaya and these other Bronze Age cultures herded cattle, goats, and sheep, they couldn’t digest raw milk as adults. Lactose tolerance was still rare among Europeans and Asians at the end of the Bronze Age, just 2000 years ago."

  • We suggest; Y-DNA L-M20, T1a & G2, H2


Uruk period, 4100 - 3100 BC


Standardized, small, hand-made coarse ware bowl with a beveled rim that was clear quite a common piece.

Uruk pottery (ca. 4000-3100 BC) was a burnished or polished monochrome (red-slipped or grey) wares, typically utilitarian, undecorated (unlike earlier Ubaid painted pottery) and mass-produced (fast wheel-made). Jars of this period often have bulging bellies, large mouths, short necks, and occasionally tubular spouts on the shoulder. For example below we see a standardized, small, hand-made coarse ware bowl with a beveled rim that was clear quite a common piece. This was probably produced using a mould, and some experts have suggested that the standard size was associated with rationing of barley or bread.

Cuneiform script is an early form of writing that emerged in the so-called Uruk IV period (ca. 4000-3100 BC). Initially a pictographic representation, it became more abstract as the number of characters were simplified and reduced. It disappeared from use in the 2nd C, and was only deciphered in the 19th C. Cuneiform documents were written on clay tablets using a stylus made of a blunt reed to make wedge shaped symbols (cuneus is Latin for wedge). As with Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese ideograms cuneiform was not a language even if the Sumerians did assign word-sounds to the symbols. Later the Akkadians added their own words to the same cuneiform symbols. It probably disappeared from use because it was not an alphabetic way of writing, and could not really compete with the alphabetic systems of the Phoenicians or Greeks. The cuneiform is seen today as a tool for theocratic (priestly) rule born out of the economic necessity to keep track of the agricultural wealth of the city-states. Given the formal status of the cuneiform, they were often associated with a formal signature using a cylinder seal.

The example below dates from ca. 3000 BC and it contains the calculations of basic ingredients needed to produce cereal products, including different types of beer. It would appear the “fermented cereal juice” was very popular with the Sumerians. The reality is that the number systems and measurement units were not consistent, the quantities remained constant over decades so probably did not reflect reality, and no production processes or recipes are listed. So it is not sure that the juice could be called a beer, or that it contained any alcohol.

Dating and periodization

Periodization is after archaeological layers at Uruk. Thus, Uruk XVIII–XIV are not part of the "Uruk period" proper but are comprised by the Ubaid period. The Uruk period proper corresponds to the layers Uruk XIV–IV, with the late phase Uruk IV lasting ca. 3300–3100 BC. Uruk III reaches up to 3000 BC and into the Early Dynastic period.

Uruk expansion

Around 3600 BC, during the Middle Uruk period, Uruk trade networks started to expand to other parts of Mesopotamia, and as far as North Caucasus. According to archaeologist Konstantine Pitskhelauri, this expansion started even earlier, at the end of the 5th millennium BC, and continued in the 4th millennium.

Large masses of Uruk migrants settled in the South, and later in the North Caucasus. The sites in this general area include Habuba Kabira in Syria, and Arslantepe in Turkey. Uruk expansion to the northeast included sites like Godin Tepe in Iran. Tepe Gawra, in northwest Iraq, is another important site with deep stratigraphy that includes the Uruk period in later layers. Hamoukar is a large site in northeastern Syria that has been recently excavated; it includes Uruk and pre-Uruk layers.

Uruk enclaves have also been identified at Tell Brak and Nineveh in northern Mesopotamia, and on the Syrian Euphrates at Qrayya, and Jebel Aruda. On the Euphrates in Anatolia, Uruk enclaves were found at Hassek Hoyuk, Samsat, and Tepecik (Elazığ Province, near Keban Dam).

Early city-states

These early city-states had strong signs of government organization (though social stratification was not strongly evident until very late in this period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period, beginning around 3100 BC), evident even in items such as cheap, mass-produced beveled rim bowls which were made to be discarded. These bowls may have been handed out at community outings, such as large-scale constructions. The cities grew to cover up to 250 acres (1 km²) and supported up to 10,000–20,000 people by the end of the period.

End of the Uruk period

A few commentators have associated the end of the Uruk period with the climate changes linked to the Piora Oscillation, an abrupt cold and wet period in the climate history of the Holocene Epoch, another explanation given is the arrival of the East Semitic tribes represented by the Kish civilization.

  • Preceded by; Anatolia (Çatalhöyük), Old Europe (Varna culture)

  • We suggest; Uruk Y-DNA I2, Kish Y-DNA J1

 

Jemdet Nasr razdoblje (Uruk III), 3100 - 2900 BC


Jemdet Nasr period

 

Proto-Elamite, c. 3200 - 2650 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G2, I2a, L-M20, T1a


Proto-Elamite

The Proto-Elamite city of Susa was founded around 4000 BC in the watershed of the river Karun. It is considered to be the site of Proto-Elamite cultural formation. During its early history, it fluctuated between submission to Mesopotamian and Elamite power. The earliest levels (22—17 in the excavations conducted by Le Brun, 1978) exhibit pottery that has no equivalent in Mesopotamia, but for the succeeding period, the excavated material allows identification with the culture of Sumer of the Uruk period. Proto-Elamite influence from the Mesopotamia in Susa becomes visible from about 3200 BC, and texts in the still undeciphered Proto-Elamite writing system continue to be present until about 2700 BC. The Proto-Elamite period ends with the establishment of the Awan dynasty. The earliest known historical figure connected with Elam is the king Enmebaragesi of Kish (c. 2650 BC?), who subdued it, according to the Sumerian king list.


Y-chromosome J1, R1b & J2, R1a

 
Y-chromosome R - Y-chromosome J


Kura-Araxes culture, c. 3400 - 2000 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA J1, R1b & J2, R1a


Kura–Araxes culture

 

Trialeti culture, c. 2500 - 2000 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA T1a


Trialeti culture

Geographical interconnectedness and links with other areas of the Near East are seen in many aspects of the culture. For example, a cauldron found in Trialeti is nearly identical to the one from Shaft Grave 4 of Mycenae in Greece.

The Trialeti culture shows close ties with the highly developed cultures of the ancient world, particularly with the Aegean, but also with cultures to the south, such as probably the Sumerians and Akkadian.

Trialeti-Vanadzor painted monochrome and polychrome pottery is very similar to that in the other areas of the Near East. In particular, similar ceramics is known as the Urmia ware (named after Lake Urmia in Iran). Also, similar pottery was produced by the Uzarlik culture, and the Karmirberd-Sevan culture.

 

The dolmen Kolikho, c. 1900 - 1300 BC

Mysterious monolithic structures of the Caucasus


The dolmen Kolikho


Ebla, First kingdom, c. 3000 - 2300 BC

Kish civilization - East Semitic


Elba - Mari

  • We suggest; Y-DNA J1 & R1b

 

Lugal of Kish

First Dynasty - Jushur, ca. 2550 BC, or legendary

The Sumerian king list states that Kish was the first city to have kings following the deluge, beginning with Jushur.

Jushur according to the Sumerian king list, was the first king of the first dynasty of Kish. It claims he reigned in Sumer for 1,200 years as the first post-diluvian king.

"After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish."

No archaeological evidence corroborating his existence or identity has been found. If a historical figure, he may thus mark the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Sumer, corresponding very roughly to the Early Bronze Age II. - Kish

  • We suggest; Y-DNA J1 & R1b


Dynastic race

Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) c. 2900 - 2350 BC

Government

Before 3000 BC the political life of the city was headed by a priest-king (ensi) assisted by a council of elders and based on these temples.

The city-states of the Early Dynastic Period (ED Period) were ruled by kings (the Sumerian language term for "king" seems to have varied from one century to another, and even from one city-state to another.) For the ED III Period, three Sumerian terms stood out. The one Sumerian term for "king" that stood out the most seems to have been "lugal". Lugal ("lu" meaning "great", and "gal" meaning "man") was one of the three titles that a king of a Sumerian city-state could bear alongside both "ensi" and "en", the exact difference between the three terms being subject to debate. Lugal had no doubt a warlike, conquering connotation. This variety of terms seems to reflect a variety of political situations. In any case, in spite of these divergences there is a homogeneity around the fact that it was usually a single man who dominated these archaic states (at least during the ED III Period.) - Early Dynastic Period

  • We suggest; Y-DNA R1b1a2 (R-V88)

 

Chariot & war


Relief of early war wagons on the Standard of Ur, c. 2500 BCE


Stele of the Vultures, 2600 - 2350 BC

 

Puabi, First Dynasty of Ur c. 2600 BC

She was also buried with 52 attendants — retainers who had been suspected by excavator Leonard Woolley to have poisoned themselves (or had been poisoned by others) to serve their mistress in the next world. Recent evidence derived from CAT scans through the University of Pennsylvania Museum suggests that some of the sacrifices were likely violent and caused by blunt force trauma. A pointed, weighted tool could explain the shatter patterns on the skulls that resulted in death, while a small hammer-like tool has also been found retrieved and catalogued by Woolley during his original excavation.

 
Puabi


Y-chromosome R1a


Haplogroup R1a

 

Akkadian Empire c. 2334 - 2154 BC (Sargon)


Victory stele of Naram-Sin

During the 3rd millennium BC, an intimate cultural symbiosis occurred between Sumerian and Akkadian-speakers, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian and vice versa is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund.

Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the third and the second millennium BC (the precise timeframe being a matter of debate), but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia as late as the 1st century AD.

 

Nergal


Nergal  was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.

Kutha, Cuthah, or Cutha (Sumerian: Gudua, modern Tell Ibrahim) is an archaeological site in Babil Governorate, Iraq.

Nergal seems to be in part a solar deity, sometimes identified with Shamash, but only representative of a certain phase of the sun. Portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war and pestilence, Nergal seems to represent the sun of noontime and of the summer solstice that brings destruction, high summer being the dead season in the Mesopotamian annual cycle. He has also been called "the king of sunset". Over time Nergal developed from a war god to a god of the underworld. In the mythology, this occurred when Enlil and Ninlil gave him the underworld.

Nergal is related to the planet Mars. As a fiery god of destruction and war, Nergal doubtless seemed an appropriate choice for the red planet, and he was equated by the Greeks to the war-god Ares (Latin Mars)—hence the current name of the planet.

  • Sargon > Ares > Mars

 

Sargon's birth legend

A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess. Only the beginning of the text (the first two columns) are known, from the fragments of three manuscripts. The first fragments were discovered as early as 1850.
"My mother was a high priestess, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azupiranu, which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My high priestess mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki, the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was a gardener, Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and ... years I exercised kingship."
Similarities between the Sargon Birth Legend and other infant birth exposures in ancient literature, including Moses, Karna, and Oedipus, were noted by psychoanalyst Otto Rank in 1909. The legend was also studied in detail by Brian Lewis, and compared with a number of different examples of the infant birth exposure motif found in European and Asian folk tales. He discusses a possible archetype form, giving particular attention to the Sargon legend and the account of the birth of Moses. Joseph Campbell has also made such comparisons.
Sargon is also one of the many suggestions for the identity or inspiration for the biblical Nimrod. Ewing William (1910) suggested Sargon based on his unification of the Babylonians and the Neo-Assyrian birth legend. Yigal Levin (2002) suggested that Nimrod was a recollection of Sargon and of his grandson Naram-Sin, with the name "Nimrod" derived from the latter. Sargon of Akkad

  • We suggest; Assyria Y-DNA I2a, Sargon Y-DNA R1a1 (Catacomb culture)

 

Levites

The investigation of Levites found high frequencies of multiple distinct markers, suggestive of multiple origins for the majority of non-Aaronid Levite families. One marker, however, present in more than 50% of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish Levites, points to a common male ancestor or very few male ancestors within the last 2000 years for many Levites of the Ashkenazi community. This common ancestor belonged to the haplogroup R1a1.

 

Scythian animal sacrifice

The mode of Scythian animal sacrifice was, in the opinion of Herodotus, relatively simple. Sacrificial animals included various kinds of livestock, though the most prestigious offering was considered to be the horse. The pig, on the other hand, was never offered in sacrifice, and apparently the Scythians were loath to keep swine within their lands. Herodotus describes the Scythian manner of sacrifice as follows:

The victim stands with its fore-feet tied, and the sacrificing priest stands behind the victim, and by pulling the end of the cord he throws the beast down; and as the victim falls, he calls upon the god to whom he is sacrificing, and then at once throws a noose round its neck, and putting a small stick into it he turns it round and so strangles the animal, without either lighting a fire or making any first offering from the victim or pouring any libation over it: and when he has strangled it and flayed off the skin, he proceeds to boil it. [...] Then when the flesh is boiled, the sacrificer takes a first offering of the flesh and of the vital organs and casts it in front of him.

Worship of "Scythian Ares"

Although Tabiti was apparently the most important deity in the Scythian pantheon, the worship accorded to the deity Herodotus refers to as "Ares" was unique. He notes that "it is not their custom [...] to make images, altars or temples to any except Ares, but to him it is their custom to make them". He describes the construction of the altar and the subsequent sacrifice as follows:

In each district of the several governments they have a temple of Ares set up in this way: bundles of brushwood are heaped up for about three furlongs in length and in breadth, but less in height; and on the top of this there is a level square made, and three of the sides rise sheer but by the remaining one side the pile may be ascended. Every year they pile on a hundred and fifty wagon-loads of brushwood, for it is constantly settling down by reason of the weather. Upon this pile of which I speak each people has an ancient iron sword set up, and this is the sacred symbol of Ares. To this sword they bring yearly offerings of cattle and of horses; and they have the following sacrifice in addition, beyond what they make to the other gods, that is to say, of all the enemies whom they take captive in war they sacrifice one man in every hundred, not in the same manner as they sacrifice cattle, but in a different manner: for they first pour wine over their heads, and after that they cut the throats of the men, so that the blood runs into a bowl; and then they carry this up to the top of the pile of brushwood and pour the blood over the sword. This, I say, they carry up; and meanwhile below by the side of the temple they are doing thus: they cut off all the right arms of the slaughtered men with the hands and throw them up into the air, and then when they have finished offering the other victims, they go away; and the arm lies wheresoever it has chanced to fall, and the corpse apart from it.

According to Tadeusz Sulimirski, this form of worship continued among the descendants of the Scythians, the Alans, through to the 4th century CE.


Gutian dynasty of Sumer, c. 2154 - 2047 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA R1a1a1

Gutian language

W.B. Henning suggested that the different endings of the king names resembled case endings in the Tocharian languages, a branch of Indo-European known from texts found in the Tarim Basin (in the northwest of modern China) dating from the 6th to 8th centuries CE. Henning also compared the name Guti with Kuči, the native name of the Tocharian city of Kucha, and with the name of the Yuezhi, pastoral nomads described in Chinese records as living to the east of the Tarim in the 2nd century BCE, although the latter name is usually reconstructed with a *ŋʷ- initial in Old Chinese. - Gutian language

Preceded by: Poltavka culture

 

Vizier - King - Patriarch - God

Ibrium vizier of Ebla > Ibranum Gutian king> Abraham/Saraja (Patriarch) > Brahma/Saraswati (God)

Abraham, po svim vjerskim knjigama, smatra se ocem monoteističke vjere. Brahma je vrhovni biće u Hinduizmu, u starom Egiptu, ABA RA-Hum „Otac svjetlih ljudi”.

  • Ibrium (24th century BC), also spelt Ebrium, was the vizier of Ebla for king Irkab-Damu and his successor Isar-Damu.
  • Gutian dynasty of Sumer (21th century BC)
    • Arrapkha - Arpakšad; Ancient Arrapkha was a part of Sargon of Akkad's Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC).
      Later the city was occupied around 2150 BC by Gutian people. Arrapkha was the capital of the Guti kingdom.
    • Tirigan Gutian ruler - TIRI GAN - TER-AH - Terah
    • Ibranum - Gutian ruler - IBRA-NUM - IBRA-HIM - Ibrahim / Abraham
  • Abraham & Saraja (19th century BC)
    • Arpakšad, Terah, Abraham & Saraja
  • Brahma & Saraswati (17th century BC?)

 

Thyssagetae - Massagetae - Getae


R1a1a


Thyssagetae - Massagetae - Getae - Zalmoxis

Gutian people

According to the historian Henry Hoyle Howorth (1901), Assyriologist Theophilus Pinches (1908), renowned archaeologist Leonard Woolley (1929) and Assyriologist Ignace Gelb (1944) the Gutians were pale in complexion and blonde. This identification of the Gutians as fair haired first came to light when Julius Oppert (1877) published a set of tablets he had discovered which described Gutian (and Subarian) slaves as namrum or namrûtum, one of its many meanings being "light colored". This racial character of the Gutians as blondes or being light skinned was also claimed up by Georges Vacher de Lapouge in 1899 and later by historian Sidney Smith in his Early history of Assyria (1928). - Gutian people

 

Tocharians

Y-DNA R1a1a


Y-chromosome R1a1a

Mumije iz Tarima (1800. pr. Kr.) su pronađene na istom području kao i toharski tekstovi i freske Tarimske zavale (300. do 900. godina) a indoeuropskog su podrijetla i ukazuju na Europeidnu rasu svjetlih očiju i boje kose. Nepoznato je jesu li mumije i freske povezane.

Godine 2008. iskopani su u okolici Turpana ostaci muškarca. Tijelo muškarca je bilo zakopano s nizom praktičnih i ceremonijskih objekata, među njima strijeljačkom opremom, harfom i 789 grama kanabisa. Istraživači tijelo povezuju s Guši kulturom. Uz pomoć datiranja ugljikom-14, pokapanje je okvirno datirano na 700. godinu. Od ukupno 500 grobova samo dva sadržavaju kanabis što istraživače navodi na zaključak da su te dvije osobe možda bile šamani.

2009. godine su analizirani ostaci trideset osoba iz Xiaohe grobnice kako bi se istražili njihovi Y-kromosom i mitohonrdijski DNK markeri. Rezultati sugeriraju da je na području Tarimske zavale još u Brončano doba živjelo stanovništvo miješanog zapadnjačkog i istočnjačkog podrijetla. Mitohondrijski DNA Xiahoe (mtDNA) ljudi je pretežito istočnoazijska haploskupina C s manjim brojem H i K haploskupina, dok su njihove očinske linije sve zapadnoeuroazijske R1a1a. Geografsko područje na kojem se zbilo miješanje tih grupa je nepoznato no pretpostavlja se da je južni Sibir vjerojatan. - Tocharians


Ur III period, c. 2047 - 1940 BC

Sumer rose up again with the Third Dynasty of Ur in the late 22nd century BC, and ejected the Gutians from southern Mesopotamia. They also seem to have gained ascendancy over most of the territory of the Akkadian kings of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia for a time.

Following the collapse of the Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty at the hands of the Elamites in 2002 BC, the Amorites, a foreign Northwest Semitic-speaking people, began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia from the northern Levant, gradually gaining control over most of southern Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms, while the Assyrians reasserted their independence in the north. The states of the south were unable to stem the Amorite advance.


West Semitic

Y-chromosome J2


Haplogroup J2

 

Amorites

In the earliest Sumerian sources concerning the Amorites, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites ("the Mar.tu land") is associated not with Mesopotamia but with the lands to the west of the Euphrates, including Canaan and what was to become Syria by the 3rd century BC, then known as The land of the Amurru.

They appear as an uncivilized and nomadic people in early Mesopotamian writings from Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, especially connected with the mountainous region now called Jebel Bishri in northern Syria called the "mountain of the Amorites". The ethnic terms Mar.tu (Westerners), Amurru (likely derived from 'aburru', pasture) and Amar were used for them in Sumerian, Akkadian and Ancient Egyptian respectively. From the 21st century BC, possibly triggered by a long major drought starting about 2200 BC, a large-scale migration of Amorite tribes infiltrated southern Mesopotamia. They were one of the instruments of the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur, and Amorite dynasties both usurped native rulers of long-extant Babylonian city-states such as Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and Kish and also established new ones, the most famous of which was to become Babylon, although it was initially a minor and insignificant state.

Known Amorites wrote in a dialect of Akkadian found on tablets at Mari dating from 1800–1750 BC. Since the language shows northwest Semitic forms, words and constructions, the Amorite language is a Northwest Semitic language, and possibly one of the Canaanite languages. The main sources for the extremely limited knowledge about Amorite are the proper names, not Akkadian in style, that are preserved in such texts. The Akkadian language of the native Semitic states, cities and polities of Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia, Isin, Kish, Larsa, Ur, Nippur, Uruk, Eridu, Adab, Akshak, Eshnunna, Nuzi, Ekallatum etc.), was from the east Semitic, as was the Eblaite of the northern Levant. - Amorites

  • We suggest; Y-DNA J2 & R1a

 

Third Eblaite Kingdom, c. 2000 BC- 1600 BC


Ebla

The third Eblaite kingdom is designated "Mardikh III"; it is divided into periods "A" (c. 2000–1800 BC) and "B" (c. 1800–1600 BC). In period "A", Ebla was quickly rebuilt as a planned city. The foundations covered the remains of Mardikh II; new palaces and temples were built, and new fortifications were built in two circles-one for the low city and one for the acropolis. The city was laid out on regular lines and large public buildings were built. Further construction took place in period "B". The first known king of the third kingdom is Ibbit-Lim, who described himself as the Mekim of Ebla. A basalt votive statue bearing Ibbit-Lim's inscription was discovered in 1968; this helped to identify the site of Tell-Mardikh with the ancient kingdom Ebla. The name of the king is Amorite in the view of Pettinato; it is therefore probable the inhabitants of third kingdom Ebla were predominantly Amorites, as were most of the inhabitants of Syria at that time.

  • Preceded by: Kura-Araxes culture
  • We suggest; Y-DNA J2 & R1a

 

Babylonia - Amorites, c. 1920 - 1530 BC

Sargon I (1920–1881 BC) succeeded as king in Assyria in 1920 BC, he eventually withdrew Assyria from the region, preferring to concentrate on continuing the vigorous expansion of Assyrian colonies in Anatolia, and eventually southern Mesopotamia fell to the Amorites, a Northwest Semitic-speaking people from the northern Levant. During the first centuries of what is called the "Amorite period", the most powerful city states in the south were Isin, Eshnunna and Larsa, together with Assyria in the north. - Babylonia

  • We suggest; Y-DNA J2

 

Babylonia - Kassites, c. 1500 -1155 BC

The Kassite language has not been classified. However, several Kassite leaders bore Indo-European names, and they might have had an Indo-European elite similar to the Mitanni. Over the centuries, however, the Kassites were absorbed into the Babylonian population. Eight among the last kings of the Kassite dynasty have Akkadian names, Kudur-Enlil's name is part Elamite and part Sumerian and Kassite princesses married into the royal family of Assyria.

Herodotus was almost certainly referring to Kassites when he described "Asiatic Ethiopians" in the Persian army that invaded Greece in 492 BC. Herodotus was presumably repeating an account that had used the name "Cush", or something similar, to describe the Kassites; the similar name "Kush" was also, purely by coincidence, a name for Ethiopia. A similar confusion of Kassites with Ethiopians is evident in various ancient Greek accounts of the Trojan war hero Memnon, who was sometimes described as a "Cissian" and founder of Susa, and other times as Ethiopian. According to Herodotus, the "Asiatic Ethiopians" lived not in Cissia, but to the north, bordering on the "Paricanians" who in turn bordered on the Medes. - Kassites

  • We suggest; Y-DNA J1


Vainakhish peoples

Y-DNA J2a4b


Vainakhish peoples

Y-DNA J2a4b

A 2011 study by Oleg Balanovsky and a number of other geneticists showed that the Y-DNA haplogroup J2a4b* (a subclade of J2, located mainly in the Middle East, Caucasus and Mediterranean) was highly associated with Nakh peoples. J2a4b* accounted for the majority of the Y-chromosomes of Ingush and Chechen men, with the Ingush having a much higher percentage, 87.4%, than Chechens, who had 51–58% depending on region (the lowest being in Malgobek, the highest in Dagestan and Achkhoy-Martan). In their paper, Balanovsky et al. speculated that the differences between fraternal Caucasian populations may have arisen due to genetic drift, which would have had a greater effect among the Ingush than the Chechens due to their smaller population (another possible reason for the difference is the greater absorption of foreign peoples into the Chechen populace, reflecting an older theory that the Ingush are more 'archaic' than other Caucasian peoples). The Chechens and Ingush have the highest frequencies of J2a4b* yet reported (other relatively high frequencies, between 10 and 20 percent, are found in the Mediterranean and Georgia).

6000 - 4000 BC

Neolithic era. Pottery is known to the region. Old settlements near Ali-Yurt and Magas, discovered in the modern times, revealed tools made out of stone: stone axes, polished stones, stone knives, stones with holes drilled in them, clay dishes etc. Settlements made out of clay bricks discovered in the plains. In the mountains there were discovered settlements made out of stone surrounded by walls some of them dated back 8000 BC.

4000 - 3000 BC

Use of the wheel (3000 BC), horseback riding, metal works (copper, gold, silver, iron) dishes, armor, daggers, knives, arrow tips. The artifacts were found near Naser-Kort, Muzhichi, Yi-E-Borz (now Surkhakhi), Abi-Goo (now Nazran).

 

Koban culture c. 1100 - 400 BC


Bronze axe with iron inlay decoration from Klin-Yar, c. 700 BC

Legend of Kouzan-Am Lake

Legend has explicit parallels with Biblical Sodom and Gomorrah, and the Islamic Lot. The story tells us that there once there was a very rich settlement at the place where now there is a lake. Despite their wealth, the people of this city were very greedy. Once God Dela sent his representatives in the guise of beggars, to test people. They asked all residents to give them food, but residents of the city in response to abused and driven away, and only one poor family in the village shared with them their food.

Legend has it that a poor family left a burnt bread for themselves and gave a piece of white bread for their guests. Leaving the house, the guests told the family that after some time has passed, behind the front door water will be collected in puddles, and when this happens they should gather the bare necessities, leave their home, and go to the mountains. Since poor families do not disobey and so did everything as they told to do by the guests.

They told the rich of the impending disaster, and asked to follow them, but their greed would not allow them to leave their treasures. That the evening the family watched a terrible catastrophe, they saw the water cover their house along with those who remained. In memory of terrible events Vainakhs named the lake, lake of sorrow and cruelty, Kezanoi lake.


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