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Mesopotamia Bronze Age

In Mesopotamia, the Mesopotamian Bronze Age began about 3500 BC and ended with the Kassite period (c. 1500 BC – c. 1155 BC).

During the Early Bronze Age (3300-2100 BCE) the cities of Sumer became connected with the Mediterranean Sea  and Egypt and a world trade system came into effect that lasted over 1000 years, linking East Asia to the Aegean and beyond. It is even possible that this trade network carried the Egyptian Blue Lotus all the way to Thailand, presumably as a pharmaceutical. The evidence of this vast trade network is extensive yet it is only given a cursory glance in most history books.


Plodni polumjesec


Y-chromosome J1 & R1b

 
Haplogroup J1 - Haplogroup R1b

 

Kura-Araxes culture, c. 3400 - 2000 BC


Kura–Araxes culture

Kura-Araxes culture (Early Bronze Ages) Y-DNA J1 & R1b


Ebla, First kingdom, c. 3000 - 2300 BC

Kish civilization - East Semitic


Elba - Mari

  • We suggest; Y-DNA J1 & R1b

 

Lugal of Kish

First Dynasty - Jushur, ca. 2550 BC, or legendary

The Sumerian king list states that Kish was the first city to have kings following the deluge, beginning with Jushur.

Jushur according to the Sumerian king list, was the first king of the first dynasty of Kish. It claims he reigned in Sumer for 1,200 years as the first post-diluvian king.

"After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish."

No archaeological evidence corroborating his existence or identity has been found. If a historical figure, he may thus mark the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Sumer, corresponding very roughly to the Early Bronze Age II. - Kish

  • We suggest; Y-DNA J1 & R1b


Dynastic race

Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia) c. 2900 - 2350 BC

Government

Before 3000 BC the political life of the city was headed by a priest-king (ensi) assisted by a council of elders and based on these temples.

The city-states of the Early Dynastic Period (ED Period) were ruled by kings (the Sumerian language term for "king" seems to have varied from one century to another, and even from one city-state to another.) For the ED III Period, three Sumerian terms stood out. The one Sumerian term for "king" that stood out the most seems to have been "lugal". Lugal ("lu" meaning "great", and "gal" meaning "man") was one of the three titles that a king of a Sumerian city-state could bear alongside both "ensi" and "en", the exact difference between the three terms being subject to debate. Lugal had no doubt a warlike, conquering connotation. This variety of terms seems to reflect a variety of political situations. In any case, in spite of these divergences there is a homogeneity around the fact that it was usually a single man who dominated these archaic states (at least during the ED III Period.) - Early Dynastic Period

  • We suggest; Y-DNA R1b1a2 (R-V88)

 

Chariot & war


Relief of early war wagons on the Standard of Ur, c. 2500 BCE


Stele of the Vultures, 2600 - 2350 BC

 

Puabi, First Dynasty of Ur c. 2600 BC

She was also buried with 52 attendants — retainers who had been suspected by excavator Leonard Woolley to have poisoned themselves (or had been poisoned by others) to serve their mistress in the next world. Recent evidence derived from CAT scans through the University of Pennsylvania Museum suggests that some of the sacrifices were likely violent and caused by blunt force trauma. A pointed, weighted tool could explain the shatter patterns on the skulls that resulted in death, while a small hammer-like tool has also been found retrieved and catalogued by Woolley during his original excavation.

 
Puabi


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