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Mezopotamija

Jedna od najstarijih civilizacija nastala je u Mezopotamiji (grč. međurječje). Nastala je između rijeka Eufrata i Tigrisa te anatolijskih i iranskih planina na sjeveroistoku, arapske pustinje na zapadu i Perzijskog zaljeva na jugu. Mezopotamijsko područje je u razdoblju od 4000. pr. Kr. do 1000. pr. Kr. dalo značajnu civilizaciju u kojoj su se izmjenjivali razni narodi: Sumerani, Akađani, Amorejci... Zajednička karakteristika naroda Mezopotamije je uporaba "najstarijeg" klinastog pisma kojeg su oni i izmislili. Sumerani su prvi tvorci ove visoko razvijene kulture.


Mezopotamija


Sumer

   
Sumer

  • Ubaid: 5300 - 4100 p.n.e. (Keramika neolitika do bakrenog doba)
  • Uruk razdoblje: 4100 - 2900 p.n.e.
    • Uruk XIV-V: 4100 - 3300 p.n.e.
    • Uruk IV razdoblje: 3300 - 3100 p.n.e.
    • Jemdet Nasr razdoblje (Uruk III): 3.100-2.900 p.n.e.
  • Rano dinastičko razdoblje
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje I: 2900-2800 p.n.e.
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje II: 2800-2600 p.n.e. (Gilgameš)
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje IIIa: 2600-2500 p.n.e.
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje IIIb: c. 2500-2334 p.n.e.
  • Akadsko Carstvo: c. 2334-2218 p.n.e. (Sargon)
  • Gutian razdoblje: c. 2218-2047 p.n.e.
  • Ur razdoblje III: c. 2047-1940 p.n.e.

Sumer was the southernmost region of ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait) which is generally considered the cradle of civilization. The name comes from Akkadian, the language of the north of Mesopotamia, and means “land of the civilized kings”. The Sumerians called themselves “the black headed people” and their land, in cuneiform script, was simply “the land” or “the land of the black headed people”. In the biblical Book of Genesis Sumer is known as Shinar. According to the Sumerian King List, when the gods first gave human beings the gifts necessary for cultivating society, they did so by establishing the city of Eridu in the region of Sumer. While the Sumerian city of Uruk is held to be the oldest city in the world, the ancient Mesopotamians believed that it was Eridu and that it was here that order was established and civilization began.

Sva je zemlja imala jedan jezik i riječi iste. Ali kako su se ljudi selili s istoka, naiđu na jednu dolinu u zemlji Šinearu i tu se nastane. Jedan drugome reče: "Hajdemo praviti opeke te ih peći da otvrdnu!" Opeke im bile mjesto kamena, a paklina im služila za žbuku. Onda rekoše: "Hajde da sebi podignemo grad i toranj s vrhom do neba! Pribavimo sebi ime, da se ne raspršimo po svoj zemlji!" - Postanak

 

Uruk


Uruk

Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE.  Located in the southern region of Sumer (modern day Warka, Iraq), Uruk was known in the Aramaic language as Erech which, it is believed, gave rise to the modern name for the country of Iraq (though another likely derivation is Al-Iraq, the Arabic name for the region of Babylonia). The city of Uruk is most famous for its great king Gilgamesh and the epic tale of his quest for immortality but also for a number of `firsts’ in the development of civilization which occurred there. It is considered the first true city in the world, the origin of writing, the first example of architectural work in stone and the building of great stone structures, the origin of the ziggurat, and the first city to develop the cylinder seal which the ancient Mesopotamians used to designate personal property or as a signature on documents. Considering the importance the cylinder seal had for the people of the time, and that it stood for one’s personal identity and reputation, Uruk could also be credited as the city which first recognized the importance of the individual in the collective community. The city was continuously inhabited from its founding until c. 300 CE when, owing to both natural and man-made influences, people began to desert the area. It lay abandoned and buried until excavated in 1853 CE by William Loftus for the British Museum.


Akad, 2334 - 2154 BC

Akadsko carstvo naziv je za državu koja se od 23. stoljeću pr. Kr. razvila oko grada Akada u Mezopotamiji. Sargon Akađanin, vojni zapovjednik u vojsci grada Kiša osvojio je područje Sumera. Na obali Eufrata dao je sagraditi novu prijestolnicu, grad Akad, s kraljevskom palačom i hramovima posvećenim svojoj zaštitnici, božici Ištar. Njegovim daljnjim osvajanjima stvorena je Akadska država, dotad najveća država na Bliskom istoku, koja se prostirala od Perzijskog zaljeva na jugu do planinskog lanca Taurus na sjeveru, te od Zagrosa na istoku do Sredozemnog mora na zapadu. - Sargon Akadski

Akad je ime drevnoga grada i pokrajine u sjevernoj Mezopotamiji. Sumerski tekst iz 3. tisućljeća, poznat kao Akadsko prokletstvo, donosi legendu o uništenju grada. Akad se povremeno spominje i u kasnijoj mezopotamskoj književnosti. Ime mu je ostalo živjeti u službenom nazivu Babilonije, kao »Zemlja Sumera i Akada«.


Akad

Akadska kultura i religija razvila se iz sumerskih predaja i vjerovanja.

Jedno od najvećih otkrića akadskih tekstova bile su ruševine knjižnice koju je u Ninivi sakupio Asurbanipal. Nalazište sa 25.000 pločica, a mnoge od njih su drevni pisari opisali kao kopije "starih tekstova." Grupa od 23 pločice završavala je izjavom: "dvadeset i treća pločica: jezik Šumera nije izmijenjen". Drugi tekst sadržavao je izjavu samog Asurbanipala:

Bog rukopisa podario mi je dar poznavanja njegovog umijeća.
Bio sam iniciran u tajne pisanja.
Mogu čak čitati zamršene ploče na Šumerskom:
Razumijem tajanstvene riječi uklesane u kamenu u danima prije Potopa.


Gutian razdoblje 2154 - 2047 BC

Nakon pada Sargonovog carstva uslijedilo je Gutians razdoblje "Dark Ages".

Povijesne gutejci bio smatran kao neki među precima Kurdi, koji govore kurdski jezik iz indo-europske obitelji.

Prema Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze i Vjačeslav V. Ivanov je Gutian jezik bio blizu Toharski Jezici u indo-europske obitelji.

Gutian dynasty of Sumer

 

Eber

Negdje između 2000.-1800. prije Krista u starom babilonskom razdoblju nakon propasti Sumera moglo bi biti naznaka prve pojave starih Hebreja.

'Nekoć su oci vaši, Terah, otac Abrahamov i Nahorov, živjeli s onu stranu Rijeke (Eufrata) i služili drugim bogovima. - Jošua

Riječ "hebreji" dolazi od riječi "Ibri" (u množini "Ibrim"). Tradicionalno se podrazumijeva da ime potjeće od Abrahamova pretka, Ebera ("EBR" עבר na hebrejskom), spominje se u Knjizi Postanka 10:21. Ime se vjerojatno temelji na korijenu "ʕ-BR" (עבר) što znači "prijeći". Pojam "ʕibrim" preći, odnosi se na ljude koji su prešli preko rijeke Eufrata.

Eber-Nari (Akkadian, also Ebir-Nari), Abar-Nahara עבר-נהרה (Aramaic) or 'Ābēr Nahrā (Syriac) was the name of a region of Western Asia and a satrapy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), Neo-Babylonian Empire (612-539 BC) and Achaemenid Empire (539-332 BC). Eber-Nari roughly corresponded with the Levant (modern Syria), and was also known as Aramea.

It means "Beyond the River" or "Across the River" in both the Akkadian and Imperial Aramaic languages of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (that is, the Western bank of the Euphrates from a Mesopotamian and Persian viewpoint). It is also referred to as Transeuphratia (French Transeuphratène) by modern scholars. The province is also mentioned extensively in the Biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Tako ih Jahve rasu odande po svoj zemlji te ne sazidaše grada. Stoga mu je ime Babel, jer je ondje Jahve pobrkao govor svima u onom kraju i odande ih je Jahve raspršio po svoj zemlji. - Postanak

Huriti


Hurrians

Huriti su bili narod Starog Istoka tijekom brončanog doba. U povijesti se prvi put pojavljuju krajem 3. tisućljeća pr. Kr., a sljedećih tisuću godina njihovim naseljenim područjima uglavnom vladaju Hetiti. Najveći uspon Hurita bilježi se oko 1500. pr. Kr. kada nastaje kraljevsko Mitanija.

 

Abram

Terah povede svoga sina Abrama, svog unuka Lota, sina Haranova, svoju snahu Saraju, ženu svoga sina Abrama, pa se zaputi s njima iz Ura Kaldejskoga u zemlju kanaansku. Kad stignu do Harana, ondje se nastane. - Postanak

Ur (Sumerian: Urim, Akkadian: Uru, Arabic: أور‎) bio važan sumerski grad-država u drevnoj Mezopotamiji, koji se nalazi na mjestu današnjeg Tell el-Muqayyar (Arabic: تل المقير‎) u južnom Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.

Harran (Turkish: Harran, Ottoman Turkish: حران,) bio veliki antički grad u gornjoj Mezopotamiji, u blizini sela Altınbaşak. Bio je nazvan "free city of Harran".

Canaan (/ˈkeɪnən/; Northwest Semitic knaʿn; biblical Hebrew: כנען / knaʿn; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן / Kənáʿan) područje na Bliskom Istoku, koje je opisano u Bibliji, otprilike odgovara Levantu, odnosno, današnjem Libanonu, Izraelu, Palestini, Jordanu zapadnoj i jugozapadnoj Siriji.

 

Abram u Egiptu

Ali kad je zemljom zavladala glad, Abram se spusti u Egipat da ondje proboravi, jer je velika glad harala zemljom.  Kad je bio na ulazu u Egipat, reče svojoj ženi Saraji: "Znam da si lijepa žena. Kad te Egipćani vide, reći će: 'To je njegova žena', i mene će ubiti, a tebe na životu ostaviti. Nego reci da si mi sestra, tako da i meni bude zbog tebe dobro i da, iz obzira prema tebi, poštede moj život." Zbilja, kad je Abram ušao u Egipat, Egipćani vide da je žena veoma lijepa. - Postanak

Abram postaje Abra-Ham

Abramova žena Saraja nije mu rađala djece. A imaše ona sluškinju Egipćanku - zvala se Hagara. ... Rodi Hagara Abramu sina, a Abram sinu što mu ga rodi Hagara nadjene ime Jišmael... ukaza mu se Jahve pa mu reče: "Ja sam El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni, ... i nećeš se više zvati Abram - već Abraham - Postanak


Abram


Sumerska obnova 2047-1940 BC


Veliki polet obrta, trgovine i kulturni procvat

Kodeks Ur-Nammu

Kodeks Ur-Nammu je najstariji poznati zakon koji je preživjeo danas. Zakon je iz Mezopotamije i napisan je na tabletama u sumerskom jeziku c. 2100-2050 prije Krista.

Kodeks Ur-Nammu je tri stoljeća stariji od zakona Hamurabija. Za najstarije sačuvano zakonodavstvo kod poznate povijesti, smatra se da je izuzetno napredan, jer je predviđao novčane naknade za tjelesna oštećenja, za razliku od kasnijih lex talionis ('Oko za oko') načelo babilonskog zakona; Međutim, ubojstva, pljačke, preljubi i ​​silovanja bila su teška djela.

Ur-Nammu - Ziggurat Builder

After expanding his control Ur-Nammu set about one of the most momentous building programs of all time when he erected ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk and Nippur. The massive stepped buildings made of mud bricks where built on the foundations of temple platforms that dated back to Ubaid times over 3,000 years earlier. These monuments are among the first known examples of the iconic structures and they have left marks on the landscapes of these sites to this day. Each of the magnificent tiered structures was topped by a shrine to the local god and Ur-Nammu as benefactor could assume the role of representative of them all.

In addition to the monumental construction Ur-Nammu rebuilt the canal networks that had fallen to ruin during the Gutian period. He also saw several cities refortified with new walls and defenses. Overall he sought to undo the damage of decades of neglect to a empire that he would claim as his own. Now, thousands of years later, sites all across southern Iraq contain bricks with the name of Ur-Nammu stamped on them commemorating the work of this enterprising dynastic founder.

The Stele of Ur-Nammu

Although a large trove of administrative documents does exist from this period there is little evidence of the actual details of Ur-Nammu’s reign. One notable exception is the Stele of Ur-Nammu. The stele was discovered in 1925 by a joint expedition of the University of Pennsylvania and the British Museum. The stele which had originally been ten feet high had been reduced to fragments. The largest fragments were later restored in Philadelphia with plaster being used to fill in the gaps. Dozens of smaller pieces were left in boxes but the visible relief provides several revealing scenes.


Stele of Ur-Nammu

The top register shows Ur-Nammu offering libations to Nanna the Moon god of Ur on the right and to Nanna’s consort Ningal on the left. The second register shows Ur-Nammu on the right carrying tools over his shoulder as he prepares to rebuild a temple. On the left of the second register there are partial images of workmen and below them on the third register is a ladder presumably to scale the unfinished building. Although sparse, these images allow the earliest known glimpse into the dedication of a temple and give some idea of the rituals observed.


Ur

Ziggurat of Ur

Pad grada-države Ur-a oko 1940 pne. naznačio je i kraj sumerske civilizacije, dok je osnutak amorejske dinastije u gradu Isin, nešto sjevernije od Ura, označio početak babilonske. Osnivač isinske dinastije, Išbi-Era bio je vazal posljednjeg urskog vladara Ibi-Sina, no ubrzo se osamostalio.

Ibbi-Sin - 1963-1940 BC

The Amorites were considered a backward people by Mesopotamian standards; Ibbi-Sin's 17th year was officially named "Year the Amorites, the powerful south wind who, from the remote past, have not known cities, submitted to Ibbi-Sin the king of Ur." However, despite his father Shu-Sin having built a "wall of Martu" across Mesopotamia against Amorite incursions, these were penetrated early in Ibbi-Sin's reign.

Ur-Nammu - Ibbi-Sin - Ishbi-ERRA


Virtualna rekonstrukcija grada Ura 3D rekonstrukcija Luis Amoros & Miguel Orellana
(404 arhitekata, Barcelona i Vancouver) - Ur Kaldejski

 

Ur - Harran - Nanna Sin


Venus, Sun and Moon on the Stele of Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BCE) found at Harran

Andre Parrot (Abraham et son temps) "postoje svi dokazi da je kult Harana bio točna replika onog iz Ura."

Sin /ˈsiːn/ (Akkadian: Su'en, Sîn) ili Nanna (Sumerian: DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) bio je bog Mjeseca u mezopotamskoj mitologiji. Nanna je Sumersko božanstvo, sin Enlila i Ninlil, identificiran kao Sin. Dva glavna sjedišta Nanna /Sin obožavanja bili su Ur u južnoj Mezopotamiji i Harran na sjeveru. - Ur, Sin/Nanna, Urkesh


Amorejci, Amurru - 1940 BC


Babylon

Amorites su drevni narod koji je u drugoj polovici 3. tisućljeća pr. Kr. naseljavao područja sjevernog Levanta i Mezopotamije (današnja Sirija i Irak). Isprva nomadi na području Sirije i Libanona, kasnije naseljavaju gradove u Mezopotamiji. Postupno su prihvatili akadsku kulturu, jezik i običaje, pa su kasniji kraljevi amorićanskih dinastija čak nosili i akadska imena (npr. Hamurabi). Tijekom 2. tisućljeća pr. Kr. Amorićani su poklekli pod napadima Hetita i Kasita.

  • 1894 p.n.e. na obalama Eufrata osniva se Babilon, BAB-ILUM – božja vrata
  • HAMURABI – preuzima vlast u Amorejskim gradovina i ujedinjuje ih u centralističku monarhiju (oko 1792-1750 p.n.e.)
  • HAMURABIJEV ZAKONIK – strogo zakonodavstvo na osnovi načela: "Oko za oko, zub za zub"

By the time of the last days of the Third Dynasty of Ur, immigrating Amorites had become such a force that kings such as Shu-Sin were obliged to construct a 170 miles (270 km) wall from the Tigris to the Euphrates to hold them off. These Amorites appear as nomadic clans ruled by fierce tribal chiefs, who forced themselves into lands they needed to graze their herds. Some of the Akkadian literature of this era speaks disparagingly of the Amorites, and implies that the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers of Mesopotamia viewed their nomadic and primitive way of life with disgust and contempt, for example:


Babylonian city

The MAR.TU who know no grain... The MAR.TU who know no house nor town, the boors of the mountains... The MAR.TU who digs up truffles... who does not bend his knees (to cultivate the land), who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, who is not buried after death.

"They have prepared wheat and gú-nunuz (grain) as a confection, but an Amorite will eat it without even recognizing what it contains!"


Babylonia


Amenemhat II, oko 1929 - 1895 BC

The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III, allowed Semitic-speaking Canaanite settlers from the Near East into the delta region to provide a sufficient labour force for his especially active mining and building campaigns. These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with severe Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties. During this decline, the Canaanite settlers began to seize control of the delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the Hyksos.

Khnumhotep II, Absha

Khnumhotep II Na istočnom kraju sjevernog zida nalazi se velika stoji brojka od Khnumhotep II primio ponudu svega nekoliko vrsta životinja i ptica. Ono što čini ovaj grob ističe među 39 velikih stijena-cut grobnice u Beni Hasan je dobro poznat prizor Aamu skupine, Azijski nomadi trgovci koji su ponekad smatraju Hiksa ili barem njihovih prethodnika; grupa, na čelu s čovjeka po imenu Absha (ili Abisha, Abišaj), bio je dovođenje prinose na pokojnika.


Aamu/Asians

 

Hyksos / Hiksi oko 1700 - 1548 BC

Hiksi (egipatski; vladar stranih zemalja), bili su semitski narodi koji su se pojavili u istočnoj Delti Nila za vrijeme drugog prijelaznog perioda. Vladali su Donjim i Srednjim Egiptom više od stotinu godina. Osnovali su petnaestu i šesnaestu egipatsku dinastiju oko 1674.-1548.p.Kr.

Hiksi su imali Kanaanskim imena, kao što se vidi u imenima semitskih božanstava kao Anatov ili Baala. Nekoliko njihovih faraona usvojiti su egipatsku Naslov hekw chasut (stranih gospodara) za sebe, zajedno s egipatskim prijestolju imena.

Do oko 1700 godina pr. Kr. Egipat je politički podjeln, s lokalnim kraljevstvima koja niču u sjeveroistočnom području delte. Jedan od njih bio je kralj Nehesy, čiji je glavni grad bio na Avaris; on je vladao nad stanovnicima koji se sastoje uglavnom od Kanaanaca koji su se naselili na području tijekom 12. dinastije.

U posljednjih nekoliko godina ideja o migraciji Hiksa, s malo ili bez rata, dobila je podršku. Prema ovoj teoriji, egipatski vladari 13. dinastije su zaokupljeni domaćim gladi i kuge, a oni su bili preslabi da se zaustavi novi migranti iz ulazak i nastanio u Egiptu. Čak i prije migracije, Amenemhat III provodi opsežne građevinske radove i rudarstvo, te Gae Callender primjećuje da je "veliki unos Azijci, koji izgleda kao da su se dogodili dijelom kako bi se subvencionirati opsežnu građevinske radove, možda potiču tzv Hiksi podmiriti u delti, što dovodi na kraju do sloma rodnom egipatskom vlašću."

Hyksos

At the end of the 12th dynasty a people called "Hyksos" settled down in the eastern delta. After a presence in the country for about 150 years another hyksos dynasty (15) made a fortified capital of Avaris.

The period of their rule was a time of peace and prosperity for Egypt. They respected the native religions, maintained ancient Egyptian as the official language of the government, and allowed many Egyptians to serve in the high levels of the administration of the state.

They had their own gods but never imposed these on the indigenous people and the language in the administration continued to be Egyptian. They only one domestic god they worshipped was - Set, who they identified as their own god of storms.  They seem to have adopted Egyptian manners, laws, and had trade relations with the Minoans and Babylonians. They were recognized by later Egyptians and listed as legitimate kings, but no tombs from these half a dozen rulers have been found and their personal names were non-Egyptian.

The kings claimed themselves pharaohs with all the regalia and tradition attached to that title and the more than hundred years they ruled northern Egypt was mainly a time of peace and prosperity. 

A big advantage in combat was their introduction of horses (a new animal to the Egyptians), previously unknown elements in the Egyptian army and they also introduced improved weapons. At most they had control down to the middle Egyptian town of Hermopolis and thus divided the Nile Valley into two parts with the Egyptian dynasties 16 and 17 ruling the south.

Avaris - Minoan connection

Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos. It was located at modern Tell el-Dab'a. The site at Tell el-Dab'a, covering an area of about 2 square kilometers, is in ruins today, but excavations have shown that, at one point, it was a well-developed center of trade with a busy harbour catering to over 300 ships during a trading season. Artifacts excavated at a temple erected in the Hyksos period have produced goods from all over the Aegean world. The temple even has Minoan-like wall paintings that are similar to those found on Crete at the Palace of Knossos. A large mudbrick tomb has also been excavated to the west of the temple, where grave-goods, such as copper swords, have been found.

Avaris, along with Tel Kabri in Israel and Alalakh in Syria, also has a record of Minoan civilization, which is otherwise quite rare in the Levant. Manfred Bietak, an Austrian archaeologist and the excavator of Tell Dab'a, has speculated that there was close contact with the rulers of Avaris, and that the large building representing the frescoes allowed the Minoans to have a ritual life in Egypt.

 

Yaqub-Har / Yakov


Yaqub-Har

Meruserre Yaqub-Har (Yakubher, Yak-Baal) je bio egiptski faraon, vladao je u drugom prelaznom periodu.

Dinastija kojoj je Yaqub-Har pripadao još se raspravlja. Vladao je krajem 14. dinastije ili početkom 15. dinastije, 17. ili 16. stoljeće pne. Vladavinu Yaqub-Har svjedoči više od 27 skarabeja-pečata. Tri su pronađena u Kanaanu, četiri u Egiptu, jedan u Nubiji a preostalih 19 su nepoznatog podrijetla.

Došavši tako iz Padan Arama, Jakov sretno stigne u grad Šekem, koji se nalazi u zemlji kanaanskoj.

Poslije toga Josip naredi liječnicima koji su se nalazili u njegovoj službi da mu oca balzamiraju, i oni balzamiraše Izraela. Trebalo je četrdeset dana: toliko, naime, traje balzamiranje. - Postanak

Shechem - Jacob's Well - Mount Gerizim

 

Royal Scarabs from Canaan

This is a photograph of the inscribed side of a scarab (the other side represents the beetle); it has been provided for our consideration by Kevin Bermeister of Sydney.

It is representative of a type of seal from Canaan (Syria-Palestine) in the Bronze Age: a standing ruler is surrounded by Egyptian symbols and hieroglyphs.
   
Here are some  examples of official stamp-seals found in that region, dated to the period Middle Bronze Age IIB (18th, 17th, and 16th centuries before the current era).


From Othmar Keel and Sylvia Schroer,  
Studien zu den Stempelsiegeln aus Palästina / Israel

The glyphs on our scarab find a close counterpart in example 33 (from Jericho), which also shows (together with 34 and 37) that the object held in the person's hand is a large flower (not a weapon). 

However, 36 has an `ankh, the Egyptian symbol of life, and two nfr signs, bespeaking "good and beautiful",  all adding up to "a very good life", perhaps; the same combination appears on 37,  with the flower as well. The 'ankh is now known to be the top vertebra of a bull, and 34b might well be significant evidence of this, since it apparently represents a spinal column. The nfr hieroglyph has the heart with the windpipe, and possibly the lips, which combine to express the emotional response to beauty and goodness. The two instances on 35 are inverted, while 38 seems to have an inverted 'ankh with nfr, for "good life".


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