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Old Europe, c. 7000 - 3500 BC

Y-DNA E-V13, G2, H2 I2, I2a, T1a & J, R1b


Old Europe


Map of the difusion of agriculture

 

Hamangia kultura, c. 5250 - 4550 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA E-V13, I2, I2a & T1a


Hamangia kultura

The Hamangia, was a Middle Neolithic culture in Dobruja on the right bank of the Danube, in Muntenia Romania it is the site of Baia-Hamangia. The Hamangia culture is connected to the Neolithic of the Danube River Delta and Dobruja. It includes the Vinca, Dudeşti and Karanovo III culture elements.

Cernavodă, is the name of the necropolis where the famous statues “The Thinker” and “The Sitting Woman” were discovered at the eponymous site of Baia-Hamangia in Romania.  It was discovered in 1953 along Lake Goloviţa, close to the Black Sea coast, in the Romanian province of Dobruja.

Hasotti has divided the Hamangia-culture into three phases. The culture begins in the middle of the 6th Millennium (6,000 B.C.), with Painted vessels of complex geometrical patterns based on spiral-motifs. The shapes include pots and wide bowls.

Settlements - Settlements consist of rectangular houses with one or two rooms, built of wattle and daub, sometimes with stone foundations (Durankulak). They are normally arranged on a rectangular grid and may form small tells. Settlements are located along the coast, on the coast of lakes, on the lower and middle river-terraces, and sometimes in caves.

Inhumation - People are in crouched or extended positions in cemeteries. Grave-gifts tend to be without pottery in Hamangia I. Grave-gifts include flint, worked shells, bone tools and shell-ornaments.

Figurines - Pottery figurines are normally extremely stylized and show standing naked faceless women with emphasized breasts and buttocks. The Two figurines known as “The Thinker” and “The Sitting woman” are considered masterpieces of Neolithic art.


The Hamangia culture developed into the succeeding Gumelnitsa, Boian and Varna cultures of the late Eneolithic (aka. Chalcolithic - Copper/Stone or Copper Age), without noticeable break.

 

Gumelnița-Karanovo culturec, c. 4700 - 3950 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G2, H2, I2, I2a, T1a


Gumelnița–Karanovo culture

   

 

 

   

 

Varna culture, c. 4400 - 4100 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G2, H2, I2, I2a, T1a & J, R1b


A burial at Varna, with some of the world's oldest gold jewellery.


Varna culture

The Varna culture belongs to the late Eneolithic of northern Bulgaria. It is conventionally dated between 4,400-4,100 B.C, and is contemporary with Karanovo VI in the South. It is characterized by polychrome pottery and rich cemeteries, the most famous of which are at the Varna Necropolis, the eponymous site, and the Durankulak complex, which comprises the largest prehistoric cemetery in southeastern Europe (1,200 graves), with an adjoining coeval Neolithic settlement and an unpublished and incompletely excavated Chalcolithic settlement. Burial is normally flat on the back, sometimes covered with stones. Grave gifts include bracelets of Spondylus, carnelian beads, gold beads and pendants, and blades of blond balcanic flint. Over 3000 gold artifacts were found, with a weight of approximately 6 kilograms (over 13 lb.). Grave 43 contained more gold, than has been found in the entire rest of the world for that epoch.

 

 

Decline

The discontinuity of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinča and Lengyel cultures in their main territories and the large scale population shifts to the north and northwest are indirect evidence of a catastrophe of such proportions that cannot be explained by possible climatic change, desertification, or epidemics. Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Indo-European cultural traits. The original term for: 'Castes' in India was: 'Varna', meaning: 'Color', cognate to French: 'Vernis', and Spanish: 'Barniz' (both= Varnish).

Some say that the Varna culture seems to have come to a sudden end around 4,100 B.C, which Henrietta Todorova believes was brought about by a dramatic climatic change. Others like M. Gimbutas (1991) disagrees, saying, "The discontinuity of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinča and Lengyel cultures in their main territories and the large scale population shifts to the north and northwest, are indirect evidence of a catastrophe of such proportions that it cannot be explained by possible climatic change, land exhaustion, or epidemics (for which there is no evidence in the second half of the 5th millennium B.C.). However, direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Kurgan (White Nomadic) cultural traits.

 

Boian culture, c. 4300 - 3500 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G2, H2, I2, I2a, T1a & J, R1b

   
Boian culture

 

At the end of the fifth millennium B.C, under the influence of some Pontic-Caspian tribes and cultures, the Gumelniţa culture appeared in the region. In the Eneolithic, White populations migrating from North Asia, of the Kurgan culture, mixed with the previous population, creating the Cernavodă I culture. Under Kurgan II influence, the Cernavodă II culture emerged, and then, through the combination of the Cernavodă I and Ezero cultures, developed the Cernavodă III culture. The region had commercial contacts with the Mediterranean world since the 14th century B.C.


Europe in ca. 4500-4000 BC

 

Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC


Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, c. 5200 - 3500 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G2a, H2, I2, I2a, T1a & J, R1b


Cucuteni-Trypillian culture

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, also known as Cucuteni culture (from Romanian), Trypillian culture (from Ukrainian) or Tripolye culture (from Russian), is a Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture which existed from approximately 4800 to 3000 BC, from the Carpathian Mountains to the Dniester and Dnieper regions in modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine, encompassing an area of more than 35,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi).

During the Trypillia BII, CI, and CI-II phases, populations belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture built the largest settlements in Neolithic Europe, some of which contained as many as 1,600 structures. However, the majority of Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements consisted of high-density, small settlements (spaced 3 to 4 kilometers apart), concentrated mainly in the Siret, Prut, and Dniester river valleys.

One of the most notable aspects of this culture was the periodic destruction of settlements, with each single-habitation site having a roughly 60 to 80 year lifetime. The purpose of burning these settlements is a subject of debate among scholars; some of the settlements were reconstructed several times on top of earlier habitational levels, preserving the shape and the orientation of the older buildings. One particular location, the Poduri site (Romania), revealed thirteen habitation levels that were constructed on top of each other over many years.

Archaeogenetics

Nikitin et al. (2010) studied the remains of the Eneolithic site of Verteba Cave (3600-2500 BCE) in Western Ukraine. They retrieved the mtDNA of seven individuals, which were assigned to haplogroup pre-HV, HV or V (2 samples), H (2 samples), J and T4.

Nikitin (2011) analyzed mtDNA recovered from Cucuteni-Trypillian human osteological remains found in the Verteba Cave (on the bank of the Seret River, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine). It revealed that seven of the individuals whose remains where analysed belonged to: two to haplogroup HV(xH), two to haplogroup H, one to haplogroup R0(xHV), one to haplogroup J, and one to haplogroup T4, the latter also being the oldest sample of the set.

 

6000-Year-Old Temple in Ukraine

The temple measures 60 by 20 meters (197 by 66 feet) and was made of wood and clay. Originally two stories tall it was surrounded by a galleried courtyard. The temple and settlement were burned down after they were abandoned.

The temple, which was part of a town that once covered an enormous 238 hectares (588 acres) and would have contained more than 1,200 buildings and nearly 50 streets, was first detected by a geophysical survey in 2009 near the modern-day city of Nebelivka, but has only now been subjected to the first intensive archeological excavations.


The location of Nebelivka, Kirovograd Domain, Ukraine.

“The high-resolution plot shows the features of a typical mega-site plan structured around two concentric circuits of houses, with mostly empty space between the circuits, almost 50 internal radial streets, a scatter of features outside the outer circuit, enclosed within a boundary ditch, and an apparently ’empty’ core area,” wrote the study authors in the research report published in the journal Antiquity. The temple was made of wood and clay and measured about 60 by 20 meters (196 by 66 feet) in size. It had two levels and was surrounded by a galleried courtyard. The upper level was divided into five rooms, which were once decorated with red paint.

On top of a platform on this level, archaeologists found numerous burnt lamb bones. Archaeologists have speculated that this could be part of an animal sacrifice ritual, or it could also easily have been a communal barbeque area.


Inside the temple archaeologists found the remains of eight clay platforms that likely served as altars.

The excavated lower levels of the temple contained a large number of animal bones and pottery fragments, and the remains of eight clay platforms, which may have been used as altars.

Significantly, the structure and layout of the temple is similar to other temples of the same era found in ancient Middle East cities, such as those in Anatolia (present-day Turkey) and Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

Other items unearthed at the Ukraine temple site included small rolled gold ornaments, probably used in hair decorations, bone ornaments, and unusual small statues which, at a stretch, are claimed to resemble humans, although this is by no means certain.

These tiny gold pendants, less than an inch in size, were also discovered at the temple, which would have sprawled some 238 hectares (588 acres), according to recent geomagnetic surveys. The pendants may have been worn on someone’s hair.

The figures appear similar to those found at other Trypillian sites, once again indicating a commonality of culture and people. The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture is the name given to the Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture (ca. 4800 to 3000 BC) found in Eastern Europe which extends from the Carpathian Mountains to the Dniester and Dnieper regions, centered on modern-day Moldova and covering substantial parts of western Ukraine and northeastern Romania.

Archaeologists also found a variety of clay tokens inside the temple. Artifacts like these were used for counting and game playing in the ancient world.

The Trypillian culture established cities to accommodate up to 15,000 inhabitants, being some of the largest settlements in Neolithic European history.

The illustrations on decorative items and other artifacts retrieved confirm that the society was matriarchal and that the people living in these settlements farmed the land using ploughs, produced handicrafts, and had a form of religious belief regarding mankind’s origins and the afterlife.

Researchers have noted that there are indications that the inhabitants of these settlements would burn the entire village every 60 to 80 years and then build on top of the ruins.

There is no explanation for this practice, but one location in Romania has as many as thirteen levels of foundations that were built upon. Like other Trypillian cities, the newly-discovered settlement also showed evidence of having being burnt down after it was abandoned.


Dispilio tablet, 5260 ± 40 BC


A: samples of carved "signs" on the wooden Dispilio tablet and clay finds from Dispilio, Greece.
B: samples of Linear A signs.
C: samples of signs on Paleo-European clay tablets.

The Dispilio tablet is a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings, unearthed during George Hourmouziadis's excavations of Dispilio in Greece and carbon 14-dated to 7300 ± 40 BP or 5260 ± 40 BC. It was discovered in 1993 in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in Kastoria, Greece.

 

Gradeshnitsa tablets


The tablets are dated to the 5th millennium BC - Bulgaria

 

Vinča-Turdaş script


An example of a Sumerian Cuneiform clay tablet

One of the three Tărtăria tablets, dated 5300 BC

One of the Gradeshnitsa tablets

The mainstream academic theory is that writing first appeared during the Sumerian civilization in southern Mesopotamia, around 3300–3200 BC. in the form of the Cuneiform script. This first writing system did not suddenly appear out of nowhere, but gradually developed from less stylized pictographic systems that used ideographic and mnemonic symbols that contained meaning, but did not have the linguistic flexibility of the natural language writing system that the Sumerians first conceived. These earlier symbolic systems have been labeled as proto-writing, examples of which have been discovered in a variety of places around the world, some dating back to the 7th millennium BC.


Old Europe Collapse

According to Gimbutas' version of the Kurgan hypothesis, Old Europe was invaded and destroyed by horse-riding pastoral nomads from the Pontic-Caspian steppe (the "Kurgan culture") who brought with them violence, patriarchy, and Indo-European languages. More recent proponents of the Kurgan hypothesis agree that the cultures of Old Europe spoke pre-Indo-European languages but include a less dramatic transition, with a prolonged migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers after Old Europe's collapse because of other factors.

Colin Renfrew's competing Anatolian hypothesis suggests that the Indo-European languages were spread across Europe by the first farmers from Anatolia. In the hypothesis' original formulation, the languages of Old Europe belonged to the Indo-European family but played no special role in its transmission.

Old Europe (archaeology)

 

Comparison of Cucuteni-Trypillian and Yamna cultures

Comparison

Cucuteni-Trypillian culture

Yamna culture

Origins

Blending of the Boian culture, with some traces of the Hamangia culture (both originally from Anatolia), and the Musical note culture (also known as the Middle Linear Pottery culture, or "LBK"), from the northern Subcarpathian region of southeastern Poland and western Ukraine; all of which were Neolithic and non-Indo-European. An amalgam of Eneolithic Proto-Indo-European tribes from the southern region of the great Pontic steppe, mostly along river valleys, including (from west to east) the Dniester, the Bug, the Dnieper, the Donetz, the Don, West Manych, and the middle Volga rivers.

Agricultural model

Sedentistic subsistence agriculture Pastoral nomadism

Social stratification

Egalitarian acephalous society Tribal chiefdom with social hierarchical levels

Economic model

Generalized reciprocity or gift economy Traditional economy featuring trade bartering

Division of labour

No occupational specialization, each household produced all necessary goods and services independently. Many specialized occupations, including priests, warriors, healers, metalsmiths, traders, herders, and slaves.

Technological Sophistication

Superior work in agricultural techniques, as well as in ceramics, compared to the Yamna. Cucuteni-Trypillian ceramics have been found in Yamna sites. Superior work in copper metalworking than the Cucuteni-Trypillian during the Eneolithic. Later, the Yamna worked in brass, and some of their brass artifacts have been found in Cucuteni-Trypillian sites. The Yamna also used domestic horses for travel, which the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture most likely did not have.

Militarization

Almost no artifacts have been found that would have been meant for defense against a human enemy. No skeletal remains have been found that would indicate the person had been killed with a weapon. Only at the end of their culture did they begin to build walls and ditches around their settlements, yet still no weapons have been found. The Yamna perfected military weapons, rode domesticated horses, and probably conducted raids against other peoples regularly. Many weapons have been found in their grave sites. In addition, they also constructed hill-top fortresses, similar to the Medieval Motte-and-bailey design.

Religion

The archaeological record indicates the worship of a female fertility goddess. There is also evidence to indicate that they used clay fetishes in various ritualistic purposes, ranging from fertility to sigils for protection against evil spirits or human enemies. There is evidence to indicate that they probably participated in ritual human sacrifice of captured enemies. They worshipped a warlike male deity.

Trade network

Very rudimentary trade network involving only a handful of goods, the most important of which was salt. No indication of traders or merchants as a profession. Some evidence does indicate the possible use of barter tokens as an early form of exchange. An extensive trade network spanning a large region from central and southeast Europe to modern-day Kazakhstan and Russia, involving many trade goods, and indication of a class of merchants and traders.

Encounters with each other

Starting around 4500 BC, Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements began to appear in western Ukraine, where they encountered Yamna tribes. Some scholars hold that this is partly the cause for the creation of very large settlements in this region, to aid in defense against Yamna raids. Also beginning around 4500 BC, the Yamna culture began to establish settlements as far west as Transylvania, which existed side-by-side with Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements.

Decline and end of the Cucuteni–Trypillian culture


Europe in ca. 4500-4000 BC

 

Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC


Black Sea - The Flood hypothesis, c. 3600 BC

 
Black Sea


Late neolitic in Europe, c. 4000 to 3500 BC - Eupedia

 

Late neolitic in Europe, c. 4000 to 3500 BC

 

Suggested of late neolithic cultures with Y-DNA haplogroups

Funnelbeaker culture: I1, I2 & C1a Comb Ware culture: N1
Megalithic Culture: G2a, I2 I2a Cucuteni-Trypillian culture: G2a, H2, I2, I2a, T1a & J, R1b
Rossen Linear Pottery culture: G2, H2, I1, I2 Yamna culture: R1a, R1b & J
Cardium pottery culture: E-V13, G2a, I2a, T1a Sredny Stog culture: J & R1b
Neolithic Greece: E-V13, G2a, I2, I2a, T1a Maykop culture: G2a, J & R1b
La Almagra pottery: E-M78, G2a, I2, I2a, R1b-V88   Kura-Araxes culture: J1, R1b & J2, R1a

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This is a work in progress. Please send corrections, suggestions and faceplates to: noeticacademydanel AT gmail.com