Narodi s mora

Zbog nedostatka podataka, ni nama danas ne ostaje ništa drugo nego da pretpostavljamo o "narodima s mora". Možda i nisu, kao što se prvotno mislilo, odgovorni za uništavanje gotovo polovice tadašnje političke karte Starog istoka, ali njihovo postojanje i udio u povijesti ne dovode se u pitanje Prije nego što su se otisnuli na more, postojbina Serdena bila je Sardinija. Na slici je njihova neobična kamena građevina u Barùmini. Jedni su dolazili s mora, na dugim brodovima, nešto većim od gondola, drugi su išli kopnom, vodeći svoje obitelji sa sobom. Nosili su kiltove, koplja, kratke mačeve i okrugle štitove. Najneobičnije su im bile kacige: od platna ili isprepletenih pera, ali uvijek s rogovima poput onih vikinških.


Migracije Naroda s mora - Hram Medinet Habu

Sherden

"Mračno doba" Starog istoka Kako bilježe novija istraživanja, oko 1200. godine prije naše ere politička karta Levanta (prostor današnjih država Izraela, Libanona, Jordana, Iraka i dijelom Sirije) pretrpjela je značajne promjene. Hetitske carstvo, do tada vrlo snažno, potpuno je nestalo, dok su mikenska Grčka, Cipar, kao i nekoliko okolnih jakih gradova, poput Ugarita i Emara, propali otprilike u isto vrijeme kad se i kraljevstvo Egipta svelo na najuže granice do tada, izgubivši vlast nad Nubijom i Sinaja. U kasnom brončanom dobu nestanak nekog naroda ili grada, ili čak i više njih odjednom, nije bio rijetka pojava.

   

Poljoprivreda, a samim tim i opstanak, ovisili su od prirode: nekoliko neuspjelih žetvi u nizu, prirodne katastrofe moglo je biti povod promjenama. Ipak, kad je nevolja prošla, javilo se nekoliko novih država i novih naroda što nas navodi na zaključak da je neka treća strana tu umiješala prste. "Gomila naroda, naoružanih najgorim namjerama, dolazila je s velikog zelenila, sa sjevera", govore egipatski izvori. "Zelenilo" je za Egipćane bilo more, pa ih zato i mi danas zovemo "narodi s mora". "Radi se o sredozemnim narodima, moreplovcima i ratnicima, a o njima nam govore neki zapisi između 14. i 10. stoljeća prije naše ere", A da su bili neustrašivi, potvrđuje i ugled koji su uživali: u 12. stoljeću prije naše ere hetitski kralj Šupiluliuma II pisao je Amurapiju, kralju Ugarita (Grad obali današnje Sirije) da se čuva "Šikalaja koji žive na barkama". Ništa nije vrijedilo: dokumenti Hetita iz nešto kasnijeg doba spominju pad antičkog sirijskog grada. Može li se pojavom ovih naroda objasniti mračno razdoblje Starog istoka? Prodor "naroda s mora" objašnjava Leonardo Melis, autor jedne knjige o porijeklu ovih naroda. "Silovitim naletima narodi s mora su 1200. godine prije naše ere potpuno izbrisali carstvo Hetita, Ugarit, Sidon, Biblos i Tir (sve na obali današnjeg Libanona) i nekoliko gradova grčkog poluotoka i Egipta, počistivši pred sobom i mikensko kraljevstvo", tvrdi Melis. Međutim, mnogi povjesničari ne misle tako: "Smatrati da su ovi ratnici, ma koliko sposobni, bili uzrok nestanaka čitavih gradova, pad hetitskog carstva, prekrajanje faraonove imperije, prosto nije prihvatljivo", tvrdi Raimondo Zuka. A što kažu povijesni podaci?

 

Reljef iz Tebe prikazuje vojnike plemena Pelešt koje su zarobili Egipćani. Njihovo postojanje bilježe, između ostalih, i dva egipatska faraona koja su vladala otprilike u vrijeme tih velikih političkih promjena. Merenptah (1224-1204? pr. Kr.) opisuje da je u bitci s Libijom pobijedio, pored Libijaca, i njihove saveznike koji su dolazili iz raznih zemalja. Pominje imena nekih od njih: Serdena, Ekveš, Teresa, Šekeleš i Luka. Nekoliko desetljeća kasnije, Ramzes III (1184-1150. pr. Kr.), pored spomenutih, navodi: Tjeker, Pelešt, Veses i Denjen. Ramzes se naveliko hvalio pobjedom nad njima, a da pobjedu nitko ne bi zaboravio, podigao je hram u blizini Tebe, u Medinet HABU, s brojnim natpisima, reljefima i slikama svojih pobjeda. Kitnjastim književnim jezikom, kao što je bio običaj kod faraona, kaže da su "narodi s mora" bili nezaustavljivi - sve dok nisu došli do Egipta. "Egipatske prikaze ne možemo uvijek uzimamo zdravo za gotovo", objašnjava Lanfranki. "Često se događa da protivničku stranu prikažu kao gubitnika, čak i kad je bitka imala neriješen ishod."Zanimljivo je, međutim, što su na hramu oslikani različito obučeni vojnici koji pripadaju jednoj strani. To nam ukazuje da je "narode s mora" činila šarolika skupina različitih kultura koje su se ponekad borile i na različitim stranama. Još od 14. stoljeća prije naše ere "narode s mora" spominju i kao sudionike bitke kod Kadeša (između Egipćana i Hetita) i to - na obje strane! Pošto su neki od njih nacrtani kako putuju s obiteljima u teretnim kolima koja vuku bikovi, može se zaključiti da su bili zemljoradnički narod, vjerojatno nomadi u potrazi za novim staništem.


Reljef iz Medinet Habua

Jedan opis Ramzesa III govori o njima kao o plaćeničkoj vojsci koju je čak i egipat unajmljivao. To objašnjava zašto su prikazivani u različitim (tuđim) ratovima na različitim stranama. Iz egipatskih izvora također može se zaključiti da su neke skupine naroda (nazvane "narodi s mora"), pogođene nizom ekonomskih poteškoća u trinaestom i dvanaestom stoljeću, postale najamnička vojska za sredozemne države. Neki od njih poveli su sa sobom i obitelji u potrazi za boljim staništem. Postoji i teorija da su sklapali saveze s okolnim narodima da bi dobili posjed koji žele, a onda bi izdali savez i uništavali čitave gradove. Današnji povjesničari uglavnom su oprezniji kad govore o udjelu koji "narodi s mora" imaju u lančanom kolapsu kod tadašnjih naroda, i to najviše zato što nema niti jedan pravi dokaz koji baš njih vezuje za bilo koji od ovih tajanstvenih nestanaka gradova i naroda. "Prenaseljavanje, iskorištavanje prirodnih rezervi i česti sukobi unutar vladarskih porodica ili sa susjedima, mogli bi imati utjecaja na pad ovih velikih i moćnih država", dodaje Lanfranki. "Ali, čak i ako nisu glavni sudionici propadanja istočnih kraljevstava, ne može se poreći da su "narodi s mora" sudjelovali u nekim sukobima koji su od početka 12. stoljeća prije naše ere zadali završni udarac velikim silama Istoka."


Peleset Filistejci - Hram Medinet Habu

Shardana - Hram Medinet Habu

 

Prapostojbina Naroda s mora

I kad govorimo o njihovom podrijetlu, stvar nije ništa jasnija. Ramzes III kaže da su to narodi koji su se kretali iz Sirije ka jugu, morem i kopnom. Postoje naznake koje nam ukazuju da potječu s istočnog Sredozemlja, možda iz današnje južne Turske ili s Levanta. Znanstvenici pokušavaju doći do njihovog porijekla tako što spajaju nazive zabilježene u egipatskim izvorima s narodima koje bilježi povijest. Po tome, Šekeleši bi mogli biti prastanovnici Sicilije. Teresa su Etruščani, Peleštet Filistejci iz Palestine, Luka stanovnici Likije (jedna od oblasti na sredozemnoj obali današnje Turske), a Serdena u stvari Sardi, ali neki ne isključuju ni mogućnost da mogu imati veze s Sarda, glavnim gradom kraljevstva Lidije (danas Turska). Akaivaša (Ekveš / Aikvaša) bi onda po nekima bili Ahajci (antički Grci s Peloponeza). Primjerice, po mišljenju drugih istraživača, Serdena su nastanjivali Sardiniju sve do 15. stoljeća prije naše ere, o čemu svjedoče Nuraga, kamene građevine iz tog doba. "Pored njihovog imena, koje podsjeća na ime sadašnjih stanovnika otoka, postoji još jedan razlog zbog koga istraživači smatraju da su Serdena naselili Sardiniju: vojnici prikazani na zidovima hrama kod Medinet HABU u mnogim crtama podsjećaju na brončane statue iz doba Nuraga", objašnjava Zuka. Doista, veliko koplje, okrugli štit i kacige s rogovima zbog kojih su Serdena ulijevali strah u kosti svojim neprijateljima, istovjetni su sa opremom ratnika koju su izradili od bronce oni isti majstori koji su podizali Nuraga od 9. do 8. stoljeća prije naše ere. "Moguće je, također, da su se ovi narodi selili sa zapada na istok privučeni lakom zaradom (kao plaćenička vojska) koju su nudila tamošnja kraljevstva. "Mislim da su došli s otoka zapadnog Sredozemlja koje je u to vrijeme bilo veliko tržište razmjene robe i kretanja ljudi", usuđuje se kaže Lanfranki.

 

Narodi s mora u Egiptu

1277 BC 1208 - 1207 BC 1181 - 1178 - 1174 BC
Karkisha Ekwesh Denyen
Lukka Lukka Peleset
Sherden Shekelesh Shekelesh
  Sherden Sherden
  Teresh Teresh
    Tjekker
    Weshesh

 

Assuwa league

Assuwa was a confederation (or league) of 22 ancient Anatolian states that formed some time before 1400 BC, when it was defeated by the Hittite Empire, under Tudhaliya I. The league was formed to oppose the Hittites. A successor state, in a similar area, was named Arzawa. The historian H. T. Bossert suggested that Assuwa may have been the origin of the name Asia (which was used initially only in reference to Asia Minor).

The member states are said to have included: a name ending in -ugga (or -luqqa), Kišpuwa, Unaliya, an obliterated name, Dura, Ḥalluwa, Ḥuwallušiya, Karakiša, Dunda, Adadura, Parišta, an obliterated name, a name probably ending in -wwa, Waršiya, Kuruppiya, a name ending in -luišša (or the whole name Luišša), a name that is probably Alatra, "the land of Mount Pahurina", Pasuhalta, an obliterated name, Wilušiya, and T[a]rui[s]ša. In most cases, these states are never (or seldom) mentioned in the few contemporaneous sources available. However, Karkiya has generally been identified with Caria, and Wilusiya with Wilusa. The historical Lycia and/or Lukka have frequently been identified with Warsiya and [L]ugga. For instance, in the Iliad, Homer refers to two separate areas as "Lycia": Sarpedon is a leader of "distant Lycia" (in 2.876-77, 5.479) and Pandarus is the leader of Lycians from around Mount Ida (2.824ff. 5.105). Likewise the Alaksandu Treaty identifies Warsiyalla with the Lukka.

We suggest; T[a]rui[s]ša - Taruiša = Teresh


Ramesses II, 1279 - 1212 BC


Ramesses II

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1270 BC Ramesses II Kadesh Inscriptions Karkisha, Lukka, Sherden

Sea Peoples, 1277 BC

In his Second Year, an attack of the Sherden, or Shardana, on the Nile Delta was repulsed and defeated by Ramesses, who captured some of the pirates. The event is recorded on Tanis Stele II. An inscription by Ramesses II on the stela from Tanis which recorded the Sherden raiders' raid and subsequent capture speaks of the continuous threat they posed to Egypt's Mediterranean coasts:

"the unruly Sherden whom no one had ever known how to combat, they came boldly sailing in their warships from the midst of the sea, none being able to withstand them."

The Sherden prisoners were subsequently incorporated into the Egyptian army for service on the Hittite frontier by Ramesses, and were involved as Egyptian soldiers in the Battle of Kadesh.


Sherden in the Pharaoh Ramesses II army. (Battle of Kadesh)

People Egyptian name Original identification Other theories
Karkisha Karkisha Caria Kohen
Lukka row Lycians  
Sherden š3rdn Sardinians, tribe of Dan  

We suggest;

Karkisha - Kohen

Karkisha (Carians), Lukka (Lycians), Sherden (Dardani/Dardanians) - Trojan forces

 

Sherden on Levant


Sherden on Levant - Danica

 

Mycenae, 1250 BC

In c. 1250 BC, the first wave of destruction apparently occurred in various centers of mainland Greece for reasons that cannot be identified by archaeologists. In Boeotia, Thebes was burned to the ground, around that year or slightly later. Nearby Orchomenos shared the same fate, while the Boeotian fortifications of Gla were deserted. In the Peloponnese, a number of buildings surrounding the citadel of Mycenae were attacked and burned.

These incidents appear to have prompted the massive strengthening and expansion of the fortifications in various sites. In some cases, arrangements were also made for the creation of subterranean passages which led to underground cisterns. Tiryns, Midea and Athens expanded their defences with new cyclopean-style walls. The extension program in Mycenae almost doubled the fortified area of the citadel. To this phase of extension belongs the impressive Lion Gate, the main entrance into the Mycenaean acropolis.

It appears that after this first wave of destruction a short-lived revival of Mycenaean culture followed. Mycenaean Greece continues to be mentioned in international affairs, particularly in Hittite records. In c. 1220 BC, the king of Ahhiyawa is again reported to have been involved in an anti-Hittite uprising in western Anatolia. Another contemporary Hittite account reports that Ahhiyawan ships should avoid Assyrian-controlled harbors, as part of a trade embargo imposed on Assyria. In general, in the second half of 13th century BC, trade was in decline in the Eastern Mediterranean, most probably due to the unstable political environment there.

 

Phoenicia

Phoenicia (fᵻnɪʃə ili fənjaʃə; iz grčkog: Φοινίκη, Phoiníkē; arapski: فينيقية , Fīnīqīyah, , fenički: kn'n / kana'an.

Feničani, latinski  Poenī (adj. Poenicus, kasnije Pūnicus), dolazi iz grčkog Φοίνικες (Phoínikes), o čemu svjedoči jer Homera i pod utjecajem phoînix " tirijskih ljubičaste, grimizne, Murex " (sama od φοινός phoinós "bojom krvi". Najstariji potvrđuje oblik riječi je mikenski  po-ni-ki-jo, po-ni-ki, u konačnici posudio od staroegipatski  fnḫw (fenkhu). U Amarna tableta u 14. stoljeću prije Krista, ljudi iz regije se zove Kenaani ili Kinaani. Mnogo kasnije, u 6. stoljeću prije Krista, Hekatej Milećanin piše da Phoenicia nekad zvao χνα (latinizirano: khna), ime da Filon iz Biblosa kasnije usvojen u svojoj mitologiji kao njegov eponim za Feničana. "Khna koji je kasnije nazvan Phoinix"

Dodona - Ilium

Ilium or Ilion (Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient Greek city in the region of Epirus

Dodona (Doric Greek: Δωδώνα, Dōdṓna, Ionic and Attic Greek: Δωδώνη, Dōdṓnē) in Epirus in northwestern Greece was the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus.

Oracle (especially in ancient Greece) a female priest who gave people wise but often mysterious advice from a god, or the advice given.

Dodona was originally an oracle of the Mother Goddess attended by priestesses. She was identified at other sites as Rhea or Gaia. The oracle also was shared by Dione (whose name simply means "deity").


Dodona

 

Epirus

Epirus has been occupied since at least Neolithic times by seafarers along the coast and by hunters and shepherds in the interior who brought with them the Greek language. These people buried their leaders in large tumuli containing shaft graves, similar to the Mycenaean tombs, indicating an ancestral link between Epirus and the Mycenaean civilization. A number of Mycenaean remains have been found in Epirus, especially at the most important ancient religious sites in the region, the Necromanteion (Oracle of the Dead) on the Acheron river, and the Oracle of Zeus at Dodona.

 

Oasis of Siwa & Dodona in Epirus

The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Western Desert. Ancient Egyptian name was sḫ.t-ỉm3w.

Herodotus (Histories 2:54–57) was told by priests at Egyptian Thebes in the 5th century BCE

"that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries."

This mythic element says that the oracles at the oasis of Siwa in Libya and of Dodona in Epirus were equally old, but similarly transmitted by Phoenician culture, and that the seeresses - Herodotus does not say "sibyls" - were women.

Herodotus follows with what he was told by the prophetesses, called peleiades ("doves") at Dodona:

"...that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona; the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true."


Merneptah, 1213 - 1203 BC


Merneptah

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1200 BC Merneptah Great Karnak Inscription Eqwesh, Lukka, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh
Athribis Stele Eqwesh, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh

Sea Peoples, 1208 - 1207 BC

The major event of the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, was his battle against a confederacy termed "the Nine Bows" at Perire in the western delta in the 5th and 6th years of his reign. Depredations of this confederacy had been so severe that the region was "forsaken as pasturage for cattle, it was left waste from the time of the ancestors."

The Nine Bows were acting under the leadership of the king of Libya and an associated near-concurrent revolt in Canaan involving Gaza, Ashkelon, Yenoam and the people of Israel. Exactly which peoples were consistently in the Nine Bows is not clear, but present at the battle were the Libyans, some neighboring Meshwesh.

[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -i, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.

Later in the inscription Merneptah receives news of the attack:

... the third season, saying: 'The wretched, fallen chief of Libya, Meryey, son of Ded, has fallen upon the country of Tehenu with his bowmen – Sherden, Shekelesh, Ekwesh, Lukka, Teresh, Taking the best of every warrior and every man of war of his country. He has brought his wife and his children – leaders of the camp, and he has reached the western boundary in the fields of Perire'

Merneptah states that he defeated the invasion, killing 6,000 soldiers and taking 9,000 prisoners. To be sure of the numbers, among other things, he took the penises of all uncircumcised enemy dead and the hands of all the circumcised, from which history learns that the Ekwesh were circumcised.

52 Sherden, and Shekelesh, and Ekwesh, of strange lands from the sea that are circumcised. (literally: "who have no skin")
  53 [...] Shekelesh: 222 people

And the line adds a detail: they are circumcised (literally: they haven’t got the foreskin).

To potvrđuju bliskosti sa semitskim narodima, ako ne i njihov identitet.

People Egyptian name Original identification
Ekwesh jḳ3w3š3 Greeks (Achaeans)
Shekelesh š3krš3 Siculi
Teresh twrš3 Tyrrhenians

 

Argives & Danaus tribe, c. 1207 - 1203 BC

In Greek mythology Danaus (/ˈdæn.eɪ.əs/; Ancient Greek: Δαναός Danaos), was the twin brother of Aegyptus, a mythical king of Egypt. The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend (or re-foundation legend) of Argos, one of the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus. In Homer's Iliad, "Danaans" ("tribe of Danaus") and "Argives" commonly designate the Greek forces opposed to the Trojans.

We suggest;

Argives = Teresh Greek forces opposed to the Trojans

Aegyptus = Amenmesse

 

Trojan War, c. 1190 BC

Trojan War took place at around 1190 BC, and the invasion of the Sea Peoples took place at just around that time.

Various collective terms for the inhabitants of Mycenaean Greece were used by Homer in his 8th century BC epic, the Iliad, in reference to the Trojan War. The latter was supposed to have happened in the late 13th – early 12th century BC, when a coalition of small Greek states under the king of Mycenae, besieged the walled city of Troy. Homer used the ethnonyms Achaeans, Danaans and Argives, to refer to the besiegers. These names appear to have passed down from the time they were in use to the time when Homer applied them as collective terms in his Iliad.

We suggest;

Ekwesh = Achaeans

Ekwesh, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh - Greek forces opposed to the Trojans

Lukka - Trojan forces

 

Exodus, 1187 BC

We suggest;

Karkisha = Kohen, Arsu /Great Harris Papyrus) = Aaron

 

Argonautica - Story of Mopsus

The Cambridge Ancient History has a link on the Sea Peoples to the Story of Mopsus ("the calf"), whose story seems linked to Cilicia, to the Libyans and to Ashkelon. This has connections to the Adana/Denyen/Danaan connection too.John D. Croft (talk) 13:24, 17 August 2012 (UTC)

We suggest; Mopsus = Amenmesse

 

Mycenae final collapse, 1180 BC

None of the defence measures appear to have prevented the final destruction and collapse of the Mycenaean states. A second destruction struck Mycenae in ca. 1190 BC or shortly thereafter. This event marked the end of Mycenae as a major power. The site was then reoccupied, but on a smaller scale. The palace of Pylos, in the southwestern Peloponnese, faced destruction in c. 1180 BC. The Linear B archives found there, preserved by the heat of the fire that destroyed the palace, mention hasty defence preparations due to an imminent attack without giving any detail about the attacking force.

As a result of this turmoil, specific regions in mainland Greece witnessed a dramatic population decrease, especially Boeotia, Argolis and Messenia. Mycenaean refugees migrated to Cyprus and the Levantine coast. Nevertheless, other regions on the edge of the Mycenaean world prospered, such as the Ionian islands, the northwestern Peloponnese, parts of Attica and a number of Aegean islands. The acropolis of Athens, oddly, appears to have avoided destruction.

The fall of Mycenaean Greece was a result of internal disturbances which led to internecine warfare among the Mycenaean states or civil unrest in a number of states, as a result of the strict hierarchical social system and the ideology of the wanax.

We suggest; Mycenae collapse = Trojan War


Ramesses III, 1186 - 1155 BC


Ramesses III

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1150 BC Ramesses III Medinet Habu Denyen, Peleset, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh, Tjekker, Weshesh
Papyrus Harris I Denyen, Peleset, Sherden, Tjekker, Weshesh
Rhetorical Stela Peleset, Teresh

Sea Peoples, 1181 - 1178 - 1174 BC

The text before the King includes the following:

Thou puttest great terror of me in the hearts of their chiefs; the fear and dread of me before them; that I may carry off their warriors (phrr), bound in my grasp, to lead them to thy ka, O my august father, - - - - -. Come, to [take] them, being: Peleset (Pw-r'-s'-t), Denyen (D'-y-n-yw-n'), Shekelesh (S'-k-rw-s). Thy strength it was which was before me, overthrowing their seed, - thy might, O lord of gods.


The "Great Inscription on the Second Pylon", which includes the following text:

The foreign countries (ie. Sea Peoples) made a conspiracy in their islands, All at once the lands were removed and scattered in the fray. No land could stand before their arms: from Hatti, Qode, Carchemish, Arzawa and Alashiya on, being cut off [ie. destroyed] at one time. A camp was set up in Amurru. They desolated its people, and its land was like that which has never come into being. They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh, lands united. They laid their hands upon the land as far as the circuit of the earth, their hearts confident and trusting: "Our plans will succeed!"

Medinet Habu opisuje tri invazije naroda s mora:

U 5. godini vladavine Ramzesa III spominju se samo Peleset i Tjeker, ostali popis je izgubljen.
U 8. godini spominju se Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen i Weshesh.
U 12. godini spominju se Tjeker, Peleset, Denyen, Weshesh i Shekelesh.

The invasions were not merely military operations, but involved the movements of large populations, by land and sea, seeking new lands to settle.
The Peleset and Tjekker warriors who fought in the land battle are accompanied in the reliefs by women and children loaded in ox-carts.

The land army was also routed within Egyptian controlled territory. Additional information is given in the relief on the outer side of the east wall. This land battle occurred in the vicinity of Djahy against "the northern countries". When it was over, several chiefs were captive: of Hatti, Amor and Shasu among the "land peoples" and the Tjeker, "Sherden of the sea", "Teresh of the sea" and Peleset or Philistines (in whose name some have seen the ancient Greek name for sea people; Pelasgians).

Papyrus Harris I of the period does not mention the date.

"I slew the Denyen (D'-yn-yw-n) in their isles" and "burned" the Tjeker and Peleset, implying a maritime raid of his own. He also captured some Sherden and Weshesh "of the sea" and settled them in Egypt.


A couple of Shasu are clearly represented as recruited (together some Sherden) in the Pharaoh Ramesses III army.

Egyptian name Original identification
People Trans - literation Theory Other theories
Denyen d3jnjw Greeks Danaoi Tribe of Dan
Peleset prwsṯ Philistines Greeks Pelasgians
Tjeker ṯ3k3r Greeks Teucrians
Weshesh w3š3š3 Considered to remain unidentified Tribe of Asher

We suggest;

Peleset, Tjekker, Denyen = Trojans: Pelasgians, Teucrians, Dardani

 

Prisoners of Ramesses III


Meshwesh, Denyen?, Canaanite?, Peleset & Canaanite


Labu, Shekelesh?, 2 Canaanites & Denyen


Labu, Shasu, Canaanite, Meshwesh? & Denyen


Onomasticon of Amenope

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1100 BC List (no narrative) Onomasticon of Amenope Denyen, Lukka, Peleset, Sherden, Tjekker

Onomasticon of Amenope lists several different groups of 'Sea Peoples' and Libyans, including the Danuna, Kehek, LiBu, Lukka, Meshwesh, Nubians and Sherden.

The Onomasticon of Amenope gives a slight credence to the idea that the Ramesside kings settled the Sea Peoples in Canaan. Dated to about 1100 BCE, at the end of the 21st. After six place names, four of which were in Philistia, the scribe lists the Sherden (Line 268), the Tjeker (Line 269) and the Peleset (Line 270), who might be presumed to occupy those cities. The Story of Wenamun on a papyrus of the same cache also places the Tjeker in Dor at that time. The fact that the Biblical maritime Tribe of Dan was initially located between the Philistines and the Tjekker, has prompted some to suggest that they may originally have been Denyen. Sherden seem to have been settled around Megiddo and in the Jordan Valley, and Weshwesh (Biblical Asher) may have been settled further north. - Sea Peoples

We suggest;

Peleset = Philistines

Tjekker = Phoenicians

LiBu = Libbur

 

Exodus, c. 1152 - 1147 BC


Egipatski neprijatelji - Narodi s mora, Esau

We suggest;

Denyen = Tribe of Dan

Weshesh = Tribe of Asher

  • Twelve tribes

 

Dorani - Heracleidae, c. 1120 BC

Tradition describes how, some sixty years after the Trojan War, a Dorian migration from the north took place and eventually led to the rise of classical Sparta.

We suggest; Tel Dor - Dorani

(Confederacy SherDen) Sher = Sard - Sparta & Sard - Lydia

(Confederacy SherDen) Den = MaceDon / MaceDONian

(Confederacy Mesh Wesh) Mesh = Mushki, Wesh = Asher

Mushki & Den  = Mace-Doni-Ans - (Doni An) = (Adad Anu / Adana) = Dan


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