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Sherden (S'-r'd-n)

The Sherden were among the first of the peoples now categorized as "Sea Peoples" to appear in the historical record. The first appearance of people called Srdn-w occur in the Amarna letters (about 1350 BC), serving as part of an Egyptian garrison in Byblos, where they provided their services to the king, Rib Hadda. They appear again during the reign of Ramesses II, in the mid-13th century BC. In the Kadesh battle some of the Sherden were assimilated into Ramesses II own personal guard. The Sherden showed up in Egypt again during the reign of Merenptah, when they fought Egypt as part of a coalition of Sea Peoples , and again in the reign of Ramesses III, where they are well represented in the Medinet Habu reliefs as fighters alongside the Peleset. In these reliefs they are depicted both among the Sea Peoples and as allies of the Egyptians, as a mercenary troops for Ramesses III During the final period of the Bronze Age the Sherden appear in a list of Sea Peoples occupying the Phoenician Coast in a text dating from c. 1100 BC, the Onomasticon of Amenemope.

The role that the Sherden played with relation to Egypt varies from one text to another. They appear as a contingent of the Egyptian army in a wide array of sources, including the battle inscriptions of Ramesses II, the Anastasi Papyrus, and the Papyrus Harris of Ramesses III, and as an enemy of the Egyptians for the first time under Ramesses II, in the Tanis and Aswan Stelae, dated to year 2 of Ramesses II ( about 1278 BC). Ultimately, they seem to have been mercenaries with no fixed alliances, who would fight either with or against Egypt.

In this relief from Abydos (about 1280 BC) a Sherden skirmisher is cutting off the hand of a slain Hittite charioteer during the battle of Kadesh. In this representation the Sherden warrior is equipped with a light tunic a medium size round shield and a simple low profile helmet with two horns and the central disk.

These two possible Sherden warriors represented in the "Sea battle" relief from Medinet Habu (about 1190 or 1180 BC) are depicted with medium size round shields handled by a central handgrip, helmet with two horns, a very long "rapier style" sword and "lobster style" cuirasses or corselets. This type of long sword shows closer similarity with specimens attested in the Aegean, Anatolian, Near Eastern areas and in the Sardinia Island.

The sword above represented was more likely similar in shape to this specimen long 90 cm found at Beth Dagan near Jaffa dated about 2000 BC. This huge blade on analysis has been shown to consist of almost pure copper with a small addition of arsenic.

A remarkable quantity (about 30) of similar swords date around 1600 BC have been also found in a cave grave near S. Iroxi in the Sardinia Island. Also in this case the material composition was the same of the above mentioned specimen.

Some Scholars identify the long swords represented in the Medinet Habu as the Achaean B Type attested in the Aegea area from 1600 BC to about 1300 BC.

Three example of Late Bronze Age swords found in Egypt which have not Egyptain origin and recall in general shape and design some of the ones handled by the Sea Peoples.

A very interesting bronze sword has been found in Ugarit Syria. This sword is inscribed with the cartouche of Merneptah and it displays a general typological affinity with central European bronzework. However, features such as the grooved blade and the royal cartouche imply Near Eastern production based on a foreign model.

Several different types of possible Sherden's helmets are attested in the Egyptian reliefs in Luxor, Abu Simbel and Medinet Habu. These helmets seem to have had only horns when the Sherden are fighting against the Egyptians, being the central disk not added until after the Sea Peoples were defeated or recruit in the Pharaoh's army.

Štovali su božicu Hathor.

In this well preserved representation of Sherden warrior from Luxor the bronze color of the helmet is still visible.
The horn is painted in light blue color so it was very likely made of different material like for instance ivory or tin or lead.

Even if in the Medinet Habu inscription the presence of Sherden between the invaders groups of the Sea Peoples is not mentioned, the chief of the "Sherden of the sea" is represented between the prisoners. This image is very interesting being this captive Sherden wearing the horned helmet with the central disk which normally identify the Sherden warriors already recruit in the Pharaoh's army. This image of Sherden chief closely resembles that of Semites as the Egyptians habitually portrayed them, and also suggests that Sherden were native to the East with its ancient Semitic population.
As already mentioned also the Sherden together the Ekwesh, and Sheklesh were circumcised as states in the Great Karnak inscription of the Pharaoh Merneptah.

Of special importance in this relief from Medinet Habu is the portrayal among the Egyptian forces of a mixed group of mercenaries drawn from the Sea Peoples. They include Sherden wearing disk-and-horns-topped helmets and probably the Peleset with their feather-topped helmets.In this rare relief, details remain of the small round shields of the Sherden with small round metal studs embroidered on the leather and wood of which the shield was more likely made. These shields and the bosses show similarity with the ones attested in some very Late Bronze Age Achaeans graves or represented on LH IIIC pottery.

A group of Sherden mercenaries for Ramesses II are shown in this relief from Medinet Habu. They are equipped with light tunic, small shield with central handgrip, simple conical helmet with horns and disk and short sword or dagger. Also in this case the general shape of these daggers show correspondence with Bronze Age specimens attested in the Aegean, Anatolia and Near Eastern areas.

The above represented daggers were more likely similar in shape to this specimen 30 cm long found in the Near Easter area dated about 2000 BC. Also for this blade the analysis has been shown to consist of almost pure copper with a small addition of arsenic.

Some scholars identify as the Aegean H Type some of the short sword, with upward shoulders, handled by the Sherden in the land battle scene represented in the Egyptian relief at Medinet Habu dated around 1190 or 1180 BC.

This kind of late Aegean Bronze Age swords (H Type) are attested in Pergamon Anatolia and in Greece mainland.

The left image shows two Sherden warriors equipped with large and medium size shields, bonnet like helmets, swords, and two javelins. Note the first warriors represented with beard, earings and what seems to be a light corselet with ribbons. The right images shows a possible Sherden wearing a " lobster style" cuirass, full head helmet and large round shield. The shield seems to be reinforced by two long elements placed on the inside, but looking better at the complete relief the two elements are very likely the ropes hanging from the ship sail.


In the naval battle between the Sea Peoples and the Egyptian army of Ramesses III both the possible Sherden and Peleset ships are well represented. The Sea Peoples' vessels have no oars (or no oars have been represented by the artist) and only the sail is shown. They have a single mast with a crow's-net and high stern and prow terminating in duck-heads whose "bills" serve as battering device. The ships are steered by a large paddle. These type of vessels show close similarity with the ship depicted on a stirrup jar from Skyros, on a krater sherd from Tiryns both dated LH IIIC and some Central Europe Urnfield ornament representing double bird headed boats as well as Early Iron Age ship models from Sardinia. In this representation the possible Sherden are equiped with long swords, large and medium size round shield and " lobster style" cuirass.

Several hypothesis have been made about the " lobster style" or ribbons cuirass and corselet of the Sea Peoples represented in the Medinet Habu relief in this case worn by the possible Sherden warriors. These have interpreted as full bronze armour, linen (or other perishable material) corselet or a cuirass made by a mix of metal and non metal elements.
A) This full bronze armour is composed by chest and back plates, lower bands and shoulder/upper arm protections. Its general design is based on some Achaean armour elements.
B) This bronze cuirass with chest/back plates and lower bands is worn over a linen or other perishable material kiton.
C) This composite cuirass is composed by a bronze chest and backplates, shoulder protection and quilted linen ribbons in the lower area.
D) This other hypothesis shows a non metalic corselet probably made of leather, or other perishable material.

A very interesting and fully functional bronze reconstruction of a possible segmental Late Bronze Age armour similar to the one worn by the Sherden has been made by Katsikis Dimitrios.
This reconstruction and other bronze and leather armours, corselets, helmets, shields, greaves, swords, axes, etc.. from Bronze Age till Bizantine period are displayed and available from Katsikis Dimitrios.

A very interesting bronze mask dated 1400-1150 BC found in an unknow Near Estern area.
Mask of this sort were also produced in pottery and they were possibly used as insets for large statues made of wood. This example has two holes at the top on either side and it is possible that these held two horns, the resulting face representing that of a Sherden warrior. The general features of this mask remind the aspect of the warriors represented in the bronze statuettes from Sardinia.

Having reviewed the history of Sherden in the Near East, a question remains to be answered: where did they come from? The Egyptian sources only inform us that they came overseas. Four main propositions have been put forward as to the origin of the Sherden: the region of Sardis in western Anatolia, East Semitic area, the Ionian coast, and the island of Sardinia in the central Mediterranean.

The first one argued that, on the analogy of the fact that the original homeland of the Tyrsenians is traced back to Lydia by ancient authors, the Sherden are more likely to originate from western Anatolia as well, where the name of the capital of the Lydians, Sardis, and related toponyms like mount Sardena and the Sardanion plain and an ethnonym like Sardonians would be reminiscent of their presence. Accordingly, the Sherden were considered to be on their way from their original home in Lydia to their later home in Sardinia at the time of the upheavals of the Sea Peoples. In the case of the Sherden, however, the literary evidence from ancient authors to back up their eastern origin is absent: here this thesis rests upon nothing more than a likeness in names, which might be spurious.

Evidence favour the second hypothesis is the dirk sword such as the Sherden used which is illustrated in cylinder seals of the East centuries before the first encounter of the Sherden with Egypt, and was among the weapons of the Hittite. What is known of the Aegean or Illirian does not suggest that they favored that sword. The dirk sword indicateds the East, the Semitic and Hurrian regions, as possible places of origin of the Sherden. Sherden personal name may support that origin. The father of the Sherden of the Ugarit table bears a Semitic name: Mut-Baal. Also the image of one captured Sherden chief represented in the Medinet Habu temple closely resembles that of Semites as the Egyptians habitually portrayed them, and also suggests that Sherden were native to the East with its ancient Semitic population.

According to the third thesis the Sherden can be equated with the Sardonians of the classical era, a people from the Ionian coast who were skilled in fightings In the 14th-13th centuries BC, the Sherden also had a reputations for the activities of other groups of Sea Peoples. However, this idea is tied to the theory that the primary factor in Late Bronze Age-Iron Age transition was massive pillaging and piracy on the part of certain groups in Aegean.

More revealing is the archaeological evidence presented for the forth theory which drew our attention to some similarities of the Egyptian depictions of Sherden with statue-menhirs from southern Corsica, depicting so-called Torre-builders, who are identical with the Nuraghe-builders from Sardinia. These entail: (1) the helmet with horns, the latter element of which can be reconstructed for some statue-menhirs on the basis of shallow holes once holding another material; (2) the corselet with five ribbons; and (3) the long sword. The statue-menhirs in question are assigned on the basis of C14 datings to the period between 1400 and 1000 BC, with a margin of error of 200 years.

They give the impression of a society of which the members are proud of their martial qualities and hence excellently fit for service as mercenaries, in which capacity we encountered the Sherden in the Egyptian and Levantine sources. Furthermore several similarity with the Egyptian depictions of Sherden are also present in some of the XI to VI century BC bronze statuette attested in Sardinia as well as ships representation and some Bronze Age weapons found in the island settlements. Worthy to be mentioned is also a stele from the ancient Sardinia city of Nora where the word Srdn in Phoneicians symbols (dated between 9th and 8th century BC) seems to be the oldest so far attested in the west Mediterranean area.
Even if on the basis of the combined evidence from Corsica and Sardinia, the one presenting the closest parallels for Sherden as depicted in the Egyptian memorials and the other furnishing evidence for contacts with the eastern Mediterranean during the later Bronze Age.

Sarus River - Adana

Sarus River

The Seyhan River (ancient name: Σάρος, Sarus) is the longest river in Turkey that flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains (in Sivas and Kayseri provinces) in the Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta. Its main tributaries are Zamantı and Göksu, which unite in Aladağ, Adana to form the Seyhan River.

  • Sarus-Adana - Sar-Dan - Sardan

  • Hyksos > Sherden



Maritime colonization of Europe

Posljednji procvat megalitske kulture na Mediteranu zbivao se negdje oko 1500 god. pr. Kr. U to vrijeme na otoku Sardinija u Sredozemnom moru pojavili su se narodi, nositelji megalitne kulture. Ti narodi su se nazivali SharDANa, te su otoku SarDINia dali svoje ime.

Sardan - Sar-Dan

Alastair Service i Jean Bradbery u megalitima i tajnama Shardana piše:

"Oni su poljoprivrednici i ratnici, a svaka od njihovih vladavina razvila je posve rezličite vrste spomenika. Dizajn i strukturne tehnike, su ukorijenjene u ranijoj europskoj megalitskoj tradiciji."


Circa settemila nuraghi, mediamente uno ogni 3 km², centinaia di villaggi e tombe megalitiche sono la testimonianza di una singolare civiltà che si è sviluppata nell'isola a partire dal II millennio a.C. Il nuraghe era il centro della vita sociale degli antichi Sardi, ma, oltre alle torri, altre strutture caratterizzarono la loro cultura, come le tombe dei giganti e i pozzi sacri dalla raffinata tecnica costruttiva; un altro simbolo di questa civiltà sono i bronzetti, arrivati numerosi fino ai giorni nostri. I Nuragici erano un popolo di guerrieri e navigatori, di pastori e di contadini, suddiviso in tante tribù che abitavano nei cosiddetti "cantoni".

Ben conosciuta nell'antichità sia dai Fenici che dai Greci, fu da questi ultimi chiamata Ichnussa (in greco Ιχνούσσα) o Sandàlion (Σανδάλιον) per la somiglianza della conformazione costiera all'impronta di un piede (sandalo). Sempre i Greci la chiamarono anche Argyróphleps Nèsos (Αργυρόφλεψ Νήσος) ossia l'isola dalle vene d'argento per l'abbondanza nelle sue miniere di quel metallo.

Secondo recenti studi linguistici, l'appellativo latino Sardinia deriverebbe da un'altra denominazione greca conosciuta come Sardò, Σαρδώ (con l'accento sulla ω - òmega - ossia la o, come i nomi in lingua sardiana di Buddusò e Gonnosnò), nome di una leggendaria donna della quale si ha notizia nel Timeo di Platone e le cui origini venivano da Sàrdeis, Σάρδεις, capitale della Lidia, luogo dal quale Erodoto farà provenire sia le genti etrusche che quelle sarde.

Sallustio nel I secolo d.C. sosteneva che: «Sardus, generato da Ercole, insieme ad una grande moltitudine di uomini partito dalla Libia occupò la Sardegna e dal suo nome denominò l'isola», e Pausania nel II secolo d.C. confermava quanto detto da Sallustio aggiungendo che: «Sardo venne dalla Libia con un gruppo di coloni ed occupò l'Isola il cui antico nome, Ichnusa, mutò in Sardò (...)». In una stele in pietra risalente all'VIII / IX secolo a.C. ritrovata nell'odierna Pula, centro comunale comprendente l'antica città di Nora, appare scritto in fenicio la parola b-šrdn che significa in Sardegna, a testimonianza che tale toponimo era già presente sull'Isola all'arrivo dei mercanti fenici.

Civiltà nuragica

Sea peoples - Sherden - Sogdiana

The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty.

they brought Hittite empire down...

Civil war and rivalling claims to the throne, combined with the external threat of the Sea Peoples weakened the Hittites and by 1160 BC, the Empire had collapsed. "Neo-Hittite" post-Empire states, petty kingdoms under Assyrian rule, may have lingered on until ca. 700 BC, and the Bronze Age Hittite and Luwian dialects evolved into the sparsely attested Lydian, Lycian and Carian languages.

Reign of Ramesses II

Records or possible records of sea peoples generally or in particular date to two campaigns of Ramesses II, a pharaoh of the militant 19th Dynasty: operations in or near the delta in Year 2 of his reign and the major confrontation with the Hittite Empire and allies at the Battle of Kadesh in his Year 5. The dates of this long-lived pharaoh's reign are not known for certain, but they must have comprised nearly all of the first half of the 13th century BC.
In his Second Year, an attack of the Sherden, or Shardana, on the Nile Delta was repulsed and defeated by Ramesses, who captured some of the pirates. The event is recorded on Tanis Stele II. An inscription by Ramesses II on the stela from Tanis which recorded the Sherden raider's raid and subsequent capture speaks of the continuous threat they posed to Egypt's Mediterranean coasts:
"the unruly Sherden whom no one had ever known how to combat, they came boldly sailing in their warships from the midst of the sea, none being able to withstand them."

the ends of several civilizations around 1175 BC have instigated a theory that the Sea Peoples may have caused the collapse of the Hittite, Mycenaean and Mitanni kingdoms. The American Hittitologist, Gary Beckman, writes on page 23 of Akkadica 120 (2000):
A terminus ante quem for the destruction of the Hittite empire has been recognised in an inscription carved at Medinet Habu in Egypt in the eighth year of Ramesses III (1175 BC). This text narrates a contemporary great movement of peoples in the eastern Mediterranean, as a result of which "the lands were removed and scattered to the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti, Kode, Carchemish, Arzawa, Alashiya on being cut off."
Ramesses' comments about the scale of the Sea Peoples' onslaught in the eastern Mediterranean are confirmed by the destruction of the states of Hatti, Ugarit, Ashkelon and Hazor around this time. As the Hittitologist Trevor Bryce observes:
It should be stressed that the invasions were not merely military operations, but involved the movements of large populations, by land and sea, seeking new lands to settle.
This situation is confirmed by the Medinet Habu temple reliefs of Ramesses III which show that:
the Peleset and Tjekker warriors who fought in the land battle [against Ramesses III] are accompanied in the reliefs by women and children loaded in ox-carts.

The name of the Serbonian Bog (Arabic: مستنقع سربون‎) applied to the lake of Serbonis (Sirbonis or Serbon) in Egypt relates to the Sea Peoples. When sand blew onto it, the Serbonian Bog appeared to be solid land, but was in fact a bog. The term is now applied metaphorically to any situation in which one is entangled from which extrication is difficult.
The Serbonian Bog has been identified as Sabkhat al [Bardawil], one of the string of "Bitter Lakes" to the east of the Nile's right branch. It was described in ancient times as a quagmire, in which armies were fabled to be swallowed up and lost.
The term Serbonian came from the name of the Sherden (also known as Serden or Shardana) sea pirates, one of several groups of Sea Peoples who appear in fragmentary Egyptian records in the 2nd millennium BC.

Movement of people with woman, children, oxes doesnot really fit well with image of ship only attack....
so I think it was a mass wave of ground invasion accompanied by ships...
thus it went along coastlines...

It is in fact ingenious military tactics... going along coastlines supported with ships... they went along coast of Black sea which devastated Hatti province of Hittite empire... than they wanted to proceed along coastline so they had to meet their fleet support in Mediteranean sea, so they made a turn towards south immediately on passage from Asia minor to Asia and than near Carchemish they meet their fleet. Since they needed to provide solid bases for their fleet so they went back into Asia minor towards west this time along south seacoast conquering Arzawa (again Arzawa is the area where G2a is stripped off along coast)... after establishing basis for further advancement, they continued along coasts of Syria towards Egypt..

This was massive settllement wave, so it must have influenced population structure and must have left genetic trail...

Thus we look for haplogroup(s) (otherwise foreign to Asia) in Asia that goes straight throw Asia minor along coastline, than turns to south towards Syria..
looking at lineages of Asia such a direction of spread has obviously haplogroups I2a & R1a



Haplogroups I & R1a shows us that being akin to ruling coastlines sea people also continued towards Caspian sea and made a big base there as well, and continued further..

Today hotspots of haplogroups I2a & R1a in Asia minor and Asia are related to Zazas (Dimilis/Daylami) in Asia minor... and in area called Daylami south of Caspian lake (area north of Teheran)..

Linguistic studies shows that the Zazas may have immigrated to their modern-day homeland from the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Some Zazas use the word Dimli (Daylami) to describe their ethnic identity. The word Dimli (Daylami) also describes a region of Gilan Province in today’s Iran. Some linguists connect the word Dimli with the Daylamites in the Alborz Mountains near the shores of Caspian Sea in Iran and believe that the Zaza have migrated from Daylam towards the west. Today, Iranian languages are still spoken in southern regions of Caspian Sea (also called the Caspian languages), including Sangsarī, Māzandarānī, Tātī (Herzendī), Semnānī, Tāleshī, and they are grammatically and lexically very close to Zazaki; this supports the argument that Zazas immigrated to eastern Anatolia from southern regions of Caspian Sea.[8] Zazas also live in a region close to the Kurds, who are also another Iranic ethnic group. But, historic sources such as the Zoroastrian holy book, Bundahishn, places the Dilaman (Dimila/Zaza) homeland in the headwaters of the Tigris[citation needed], as it is today. This points to that the Dimila/Zaza migrated to the Caspian sea and not the other way around.

I think tribal name Dalmatae in Balkan (where is highest frequency of haplogrpoup I2a2) and word Daylamites (islands of I in north Iran and Asia minor) have same root, denote same people...

Dalmatae/Dalmatinci were always sea related people, anyone in west Balkans can tell you so..


The Zazaki language shows similarities with (Hewrami or Gorani), Shabaki and Bajelani. Gorani, Bajelani, and Shabaki languages are spoken around Iran-Iraq border; however, it is believed that they are also immigrated from Northern Iran to their present homelands. These languages are sometimes put together in the Zaza-Gorani language group.

Gorani is common tribal name amongst Slavic people - it means simply people living in hills....e.g. there is today a ethnic group Gorani in Kosovo..they are of Slavic origin but has accepted islam


In fact, it we follow further spread of I2a & R1a in the Asia we get to Sarbans who are now one of the Pashtun tribes... however, unlike other Pastuns they seems to carry lot of I 2a & R1a haplogroups which is illustrated by observing perfect match between spread of I2a & R1a haplogroups and Sarbans.

we can see that in this part tribal name Sarbans is preserved this of course expains well why some of "sea people" were known as Sherden, why Sirbonis bog is named after "sea people"....

haplogroups I2a & R1a however continues further, next stop is Sogdiana.

last stop is believe it or not in what is now north-west China

Who were those people?

Seres (Gr. Σῆρες, Lat. Sērēs) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the inhabitants of eastern Central Asia, but could also extend to a number of other Asian people in a wide arc from China to India. It meant "of silk," or people of the "land where silk comes from." The country of the Seres was Serica.

Pliny also reports a curious description of the Seres made by an embassy from Taprobane to Emperor Claudius, suggesting they may be referring to the ancient Caucasian populations of the Tarim Basin, such as the Tocharians:
"They also informed us that the side of their island (Taprobane) which lies opposite to India is ten thousand stadia in length, and runs in a south-easterly direction--that beyond the Emodian Mountains (Himalayas) they look towards the Serve (Seres), whose acquaintance they had also made in the pursuits of commerce; .." (Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap XXIV "Taprobane")

Tocharian languages - Centum branch

Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family. It is known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). The discovery of these languages in the early 20th century contradicted the formerly prevalent idea of an east–west division of Indo-European language family on the centum–satem isogloss.
The discovery of Tocharian upset some theories about the relations of Indo-European languages. In the 19th century, it was thought that the division between Centum and Satem languages was a simple west–east division, with centum languages in the west. The theory was undermined in the early 20th century by the discovery of Hittite, a centum language in a relatively eastern location, and Tocharian, centum despite being easternmost branch.
In 1938, Walter Henning found the term "four twγry" used in early 9th-century manuscripts in Sogdian, Middle Iranian and Uighur. He argued that it referred to the region on the northeast edge of the Tarim, including Agni and Karakhoja but not Kucha. He thus inferred that the colophon referred to the Agnean language.

Serica, the land of the Seres, was the name by which the Greco-Romans referred to a country in Central Asia.
Ancient Mediterranean knowledge of this nation was indistinct and distorted by fables and myths. Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder present more precise descriptions. Serica was described by Ptolemy as bordering "Scythia beyond the Imaum mountains (Tian Shan)" on the West, "Terra Incognita" to the North-East, the "Sinae" or Chinese to the East and "India" to the South. This would correspond with modern Xinjiang province in North-Western China.

Dandan Oilik

Dandan Oilik (Chinese: 丹丹乌里克; pinyin: Dāndānwūlǐkè), also Dandān-Uiliq, lit. "the houses with ivory", is an abandoned historic oasis town and Buddhist site in the Taklamakan Desert of China, located to the northeast of Khotan in what is now the autonomous region of Xinjiang, between the Khotan and Keriya rivers.

"wide arc from China to India"known as Seres is again clearly visible in distribution of I2a & R1a haplogroups connecting in arc position of Sarbans, Sogdiana, and Serica proper..



Mumije iz Tarima (1800. pr. Kr.) su pronađene na istom području kao i toharski tekstovi i freske Tarimske zavale (300. do 900. godina) a indoeuropskog su podrijetla i ukazuju na Europeidnu rasu svjetlih očiju i boje kose. Nepoznato je jesu li mumije i freske povezane.

Godine 2008. iskopani su u okolici Turpana ostaci muškarca. Tijelo muškarca je bilo zakopano s nizom praktičnih i ceremonijskih objekata, među njima strijeljačkom opremom, harfom i 789 grama kanabisa. Istraživači tijelo povezuju s Guši kulturom. Uz pomoć datiranja ugljikom-14, pokapanje je okvirno datirano na 700. godinu. Od ukupno 500 grobova samo dva sadržavaju kanabis što istraživače navodi na zaključak da su te dvije osobe možda bile šamani.

2009. godine su analizirani ostaci trideset osoba iz Xiaohe grobnice kako bi se istražili njihovi Y-kromosom i mitohonrdijski DNK markeri. Rezultati sugeriraju da je na području Tarimske zavale još u Brončano doba živjelo stanovništvo miješanog zapadnjačkog i istočnjačkog podrijetla. Mitohondrijski DNA Xiahoe (mtDNA) ljudi je pretežito istočnoazijska haploskupina C s manjim brojem H i K haploskupina, dok su njihove očinske linije sve zapadnoeuroazijske R1a1a. Geografsko područje na kojem se zbilo miješanje tih grupa je nepoznato no pretpostavlja se da je južni Sibir vjerojatan. - Tocharians



Rigveda is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, most likely between c. 1500 and 1200 BC-though a wider approximation of c. 1700-1100 BC has also been given. The initial codification of the Rigveda took place during the early Kuru kingdom (c. 1200 - c. 900 BCE).

Danu (Asura)

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vrtra, the demonic serpent slain by Indra. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of Kasyapa.

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neuter, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54.

Dunav Danube - Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros (Ἴστρος) a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift" (akin to Sanskrit iṣiras "swift"). In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube. The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck".



Haplogroup I2a (DN)

Haplogroup R1a (Ares)

Sherden - Danites - Tribe of Dan

Anu - An




Sardinian warrior figure - Model of Nuragic ship

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