Sherden (S'-r'd-n)

The Sherden were among the first of the peoples now categorized as "Sea Peoples" to appear in the historical record. The first appearance of people called Srdn-w occur in the Amarna letters (about 1350 BC), serving as part of an Egyptian garrison in Byblos, where they provided their services to the king, Rib Hadda. They appear again during the reign of Ramesses II, in the mid-13th century BC. In the Kadesh battle some of the Sherden were assimilated into Ramesses II own personal guard. The Sherden showed up in Egypt again during the reign of Merenptah, when they fought Egypt as part of a coalition of Sea Peoples , and again in the reign of Ramesses III, where they are well represented in the Medinet Habu reliefs as fighters alongside the Peleset. In these reliefs they are depicted both among the Sea Peoples and as allies of the Egyptians, as a mercenary troops for Ramesses III During the final period of the Bronze Age the Sherden appear in a list of Sea Peoples occupying the Phoenician Coast in a text dating from c. 1100 BC, the Onomasticon of Amenemope.

The role that the Sherden played with relation to Egypt varies from one text to another. They appear as a contingent of the Egyptian army in a wide array of sources, including the battle inscriptions of Ramesses II, the Anastasi Papyrus, and the Papyrus Harris of Ramesses III, and as an enemy of the Egyptians for the first time under Ramesses II, in the Tanis and Aswan Stelae, dated to year 2 of Ramesses II ( about 1278 BC). Ultimately, they seem to have been mercenaries with no fixed alliances, who would fight either with or against Egypt.

In this relief from Abydos (about 1280 BC) a Sherden skirmisher is cutting off the hand of a slain Hittite charioteer during the battle of Kadesh. In this representation the Sherden warrior is equipped with a light tunic a medium size round shield and a simple low profile helmet with two horns and the central disk.

These two possible Sherden warriors represented in the "Sea battle" relief from Medinet Habu (about 1190 or 1180 BC) are depicted with medium size round shields handled by a central handgrip, helmet with two horns, a very long "rapier style" sword and "lobster style" cuirasses or corselets. This type of long sword shows closer similarity with specimens attested in the Aegean, Anatolian, Near Eastern areas and in the Sardinia Island.

The sword above represented was more likely similar in shape to this specimen long 90 cm found at Beth Dagan near Jaffa dated about 2000 BC. This huge blade on analysis has been shown to consist of almost pure copper with a small addition of arsenic.

A remarkable quantity (about 30) of similar swords date around 1600 BC have been also found in a cave grave near S. Iroxi in the Sardinia Island. Also in this case the material composition was the same of the above mentioned specimen.

Some Scholars identify the long swords represented in the Medinet Habu as the Achaean B Type attested in the Aegea area from 1600 BC to about 1300 BC.

Three example of Late Bronze Age swords found in Egypt which have not Egyptain origin and recall in general shape and design some of the ones handled by the Sea Peoples.

A very interesting bronze sword has been found in Ugarit Syria. This sword is inscribed with the cartouche of Merneptah and it displays a general typological affinity with central European bronzework. However, features such as the grooved blade and the royal cartouche imply Near Eastern production based on a foreign model.

Several different types of possible Sherden's helmets are attested in the Egyptian reliefs in Luxor, Abu Simbel and Medinet Habu. These helmets seem to have had only horns when the Sherden are fighting against the Egyptians, being the central disk not added until after the Sea Peoples were defeated or recruit in the Pharaoh's army.

Štovali su božicu Hathor.

In this well preserved representation of Sherden warrior from Luxor the bronze color of the helmet is still visible.
The horn is painted in light blue color so it was very likely made of different material like for instance ivory or tin or lead.

Even if in the Medinet Habu inscription the presence of Sherden between the invaders groups of the Sea Peoples is not mentioned, the chief of the "Sherden of the sea" is represented between the prisoners. This image is very interesting being this captive Sherden wearing the horned helmet with the central disk which normally identify the Sherden warriors already recruit in the Pharaoh's army. This image of Sherden chief closely resembles that of Semites as the Egyptians habitually portrayed them, and also suggests that Sherden were native to the East with its ancient Semitic population.
As already mentioned also the Sherden together the Ekwesh, and Sheklesh were circumcised as states in the Great Karnak inscription of the Pharaoh Merneptah.

Of special importance in this relief from Medinet Habu is the portrayal among the Egyptian forces of a mixed group of mercenaries drawn from the Sea Peoples. They include Sherden wearing disk-and-horns-topped helmets and probably the Peleset with their feather-topped helmets.In this rare relief, details remain of the small round shields of the Sherden with small round metal studs embroidered on the leather and wood of which the shield was more likely made. These shields and the bosses show similarity with the ones attested in some very Late Bronze Age Achaeans graves or represented on LH IIIC pottery.

A group of Sherden mercenaries for Ramesses II are shown in this relief from Medinet Habu. They are equipped with light tunic, small shield with central handgrip, simple conical helmet with horns and disk and short sword or dagger. Also in this case the general shape of these daggers show correspondence with Bronze Age specimens attested in the Aegean, Anatolia and Near Eastern areas.

The above represented daggers were more likely similar in shape to this specimen 30 cm long found in the Near Easter area dated about 2000 BC. Also for this blade the analysis has been shown to consist of almost pure copper with a small addition of arsenic.

Some scholars identify as the Aegean H Type some of the short sword, with upward shoulders, handled by the Sherden in the land battle scene represented in the Egyptian relief at Medinet Habu dated around 1190 or 1180 BC.

This kind of late Aegean Bronze Age swords (H Type) are attested in Pergamon Anatolia and in Greece mainland.

The left image shows two Sherden warriors equipped with large and medium size shields, bonnet like helmets, swords, and two javelins. Note the first warriors represented with beard, earings and what seems to be a light corselet with ribbons. The right images shows a possible Sherden wearing a " lobster style" cuirass, full head helmet and large round shield. The shield seems to be reinforced by two long elements placed on the inside, but looking better at the complete relief the two elements are very likely the ropes hanging from the ship sail.


In the naval battle between the Sea Peoples and the Egyptian army of Ramesses III both the possible Sherden and Peleset ships are well represented. The Sea Peoples' vessels have no oars (or no oars have been represented by the artist) and only the sail is shown. They have a single mast with a crow's-net and high stern and prow terminating in duck-heads whose "bills" serve as battering device. The ships are steered by a large paddle. These type of vessels show close similarity with the ship depicted on a stirrup jar from Skyros, on a krater sherd from Tiryns both dated LH IIIC and some Central Europe Urnfield ornament representing double bird headed boats as well as Early Iron Age ship models from Sardinia. In this representation the possible Sherden are equiped with long swords, large and medium size round shield and " lobster style" cuirass.

Several hypothesis have been made about the " lobster style" or ribbons cuirass and corselet of the Sea Peoples represented in the Medinet Habu relief in this case worn by the possible Sherden warriors. These have interpreted as full bronze armour, linen (or other perishable material) corselet or a cuirass made by a mix of metal and non metal elements.
A) This full bronze armour is composed by chest and back plates, lower bands and shoulder/upper arm protections. Its general design is based on some Achaean armour elements.
B) This bronze cuirass with chest/back plates and lower bands is worn over a linen or other perishable material kiton.
C) This composite cuirass is composed by a bronze chest and backplates, shoulder protection and quilted linen ribbons in the lower area.
D) This other hypothesis shows a non metalic corselet probably made of leather, or other perishable material.

A very interesting and fully functional bronze reconstruction of a possible segmental Late Bronze Age armour similar to the one worn by the Sherden has been made by Katsikis Dimitrios.
This reconstruction and other bronze and leather armours, corselets, helmets, shields, greaves, swords, axes, etc.. from Bronze Age till Bizantine period are displayed and available from Katsikis Dimitrios.

A very interesting bronze mask dated 1400-1150 BC found in an unknow Near Estern area.
Mask of this sort were also produced in pottery and they were possibly used as insets for large statues made of wood. This example has two holes at the top on either side and it is possible that these held two horns, the resulting face representing that of a Sherden warrior. The general features of this mask remind the aspect of the warriors represented in the bronze statuettes from Sardinia.

Having reviewed the history of Sherden in the Near East, a question remains to be answered: where did they come from? The Egyptian sources only inform us that they came overseas. Four main propositions have been put forward as to the origin of the Sherden: the region of Sardis in western Anatolia, East Semitic area, the Ionian coast, and the island of Sardinia in the central Mediterranean.

The first one argued that, on the analogy of the fact that the original homeland of the Tyrsenians is traced back to Lydia by ancient authors, the Sherden are more likely to originate from western Anatolia as well, where the name of the capital of the Lydians, Sardis, and related toponyms like mount Sardena and the Sardanion plain and an ethnonym like Sardonians would be reminiscent of their presence. Accordingly, the Sherden were considered to be on their way from their original home in Lydia to their later home in Sardinia at the time of the upheavals of the Sea Peoples. In the case of the Sherden, however, the literary evidence from ancient authors to back up their eastern origin is absent: here this thesis rests upon nothing more than a likeness in names, which might be spurious.

Evidence favour the second hypothesis is the dirk sword such as the Sherden used which is illustrated in cylinder seals of the East centuries before the first encounter of the Sherden with Egypt, and was among the weapons of the Hittite. What is known of the Aegean or Illirian does not suggest that they favored that sword. The dirk sword indicateds the East, the Semitic and Hurrian regions, as possible places of origin of the Sherden. Sherden personal name may support that origin. The father of the Sherden of the Ugarit table bears a Semitic name: Mut-Baal. Also the image of one captured Sherden chief represented in the Medinet Habu temple closely resembles that of Semites as the Egyptians habitually portrayed them, and also suggests that Sherden were native to the East with its ancient Semitic population.

According to the third thesis the Sherden can be equated with the Sardonians of the classical era, a people from the Ionian coast who were skilled in fightings In the 14th-13th centuries BC, the Sherden also had a reputations for the activities of other groups of Sea Peoples. However, this idea is tied to the theory that the primary factor in Late Bronze Age-Iron Age transition was massive pillaging and piracy on the part of certain groups in Aegean.

More revealing is the archaeological evidence presented for the forth theory which drew our attention to some similarities of the Egyptian depictions of Sherden with statue-menhirs from southern Corsica, depicting so-called Torre-builders, who are identical with the Nuraghe-builders from Sardinia. These entail: (1) the helmet with horns, the latter element of which can be reconstructed for some statue-menhirs on the basis of shallow holes once holding another material; (2) the corselet with five ribbons; and (3) the long sword. The statue-menhirs in question are assigned on the basis of C14 datings to the period between 1400 and 1000 BC, with a margin of error of 200 years.

They give the impression of a society of which the members are proud of their martial qualities and hence excellently fit for service as mercenaries, in which capacity we encountered the Sherden in the Egyptian and Levantine sources. Furthermore several similarity with the Egyptian depictions of Sherden are also present in some of the XI to VI century BC bronze statuette attested in Sardinia as well as ships representation and some Bronze Age weapons found in the island settlements. Worthy to be mentioned is also a stele from the ancient Sardinia city of Nora where the word Srdn in Phoneicians symbols (dated between 9th and 8th century BC) seems to be the oldest so far attested in the west Mediterranean area.
Even if on the basis of the combined evidence from Corsica and Sardinia, the one presenting the closest parallels for Sherden as depicted in the Egyptian memorials and the other furnishing evidence for contacts with the eastern Mediterranean during the later Bronze Age.

Sarus River - Adana

The Seyhan River (ancient name: Σάρος, Sarus) is the longest river in Turkey that flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains (in Sivas and Kayseri provinces) in the Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta. Its main tributaries are Zamantı and Göksu, which unite in Aladağ, Adana to form the Seyhan River.

Sarus-Adana - Sar-Dan - Sardan

Sarus River



Posljednji procvat megalitske kulture na Mediteranu zbivao se negdje oko 1500 god. pr. Kr. U to vrijeme na otoku Sardinija u Sredozemnom moru pojavili su se narodi, nositelji megalitne kulture. Ti narodi su se nazivali SharDANa, te su otoku SarDINia dali svoje ime.

Sardan - Sar-Dan

Alastair Service i Jean Bradbery u megalitima i tajnama Shardana piše:

"Oni su poljoprivrednici i ratnici, a svaka od njihovih vladavina razvila je posve rezličite vrste spomenika. Dizajn i strukturne tehnike, su ukorijenjene u ranijoj europskoj megalitskoj tradiciji."


Circa settemila nuraghi, mediamente uno ogni 3 km², centinaia di villaggi e tombe megalitiche sono la testimonianza di una singolare civiltà che si è sviluppata nell'isola a partire dal II millennio a.C. Il nuraghe era il centro della vita sociale degli antichi Sardi, ma, oltre alle torri, altre strutture caratterizzarono la loro cultura, come le tombe dei giganti e i pozzi sacri dalla raffinata tecnica costruttiva; un altro simbolo di questa civiltà sono i bronzetti, arrivati numerosi fino ai giorni nostri. I Nuragici erano un popolo di guerrieri e navigatori, di pastori e di contadini, suddiviso in tante tribù che abitavano nei cosiddetti "cantoni".

Ben conosciuta nell'antichità sia dai Fenici che dai Greci, fu da questi ultimi chiamata Ichnussa (in greco Ιχνούσσα) o Sandàlion (Σανδάλιον) per la somiglianza della conformazione costiera all'impronta di un piede (sandalo). Sempre i Greci la chiamarono anche Argyróphleps Nèsos (Αργυρόφλεψ Νήσος) ossia l'isola dalle vene d'argento per l'abbondanza nelle sue miniere di quel metallo.

Secondo recenti studi linguistici, l'appellativo latino Sardinia deriverebbe da un'altra denominazione greca conosciuta come Sardò, Σαρδώ (con l'accento sulla ω - òmega - ossia la o, come i nomi in lingua sardiana di Buddusò e Gonnosnò), nome di una leggendaria donna della quale si ha notizia nel Timeo di Platone e le cui origini venivano da Sàrdeis, Σάρδεις, capitale della Lidia, luogo dal quale Erodoto farà provenire sia le genti etrusche che quelle sarde.

Sallustio nel I secolo d.C. sosteneva che: «Sardus, generato da Ercole, insieme ad una grande moltitudine di uomini partito dalla Libia occupò la Sardegna e dal suo nome denominò l'isola», e Pausania nel II secolo d.C. confermava quanto detto da Sallustio aggiungendo che: «Sardo venne dalla Libia con un gruppo di coloni ed occupò l'Isola il cui antico nome, Ichnusa, mutò in Sardò (...)». In una stele in pietra risalente all'VIII / IX secolo a.C. ritrovata nell'odierna Pula, centro comunale comprendente l'antica città di Nora, appare scritto in fenicio la parola b-šrdn che significa in Sardegna, a testimonianza che tale toponimo era già presente sull'Isola all'arrivo dei mercanti fenici.

Civiltà nuragica



Lidija (asirski: Luddu; grčki: Λυδία) je kraljevstvo iz Željeznog doba. Nalazila se istočno od drevne Ionije, a njeni stanovnici govorili su jezik poznat kao lidijski. Lidija (poznata kao Sparda od strane Ahemenida) je satrapija (pokrajina) Ahemenidsko Perzijskog carstva. Tabal, imenuje Kir Veliki , bilo je prvi satrap (guverner). Smatra se kako su se najstarije kovanice pojavile u Lidiji oko 660. pr. Kr. Glavni grad regije bio je Sard. Teritorij Lidije još su oko 1200. pr. Kr. naseljavali Hetiti. Lidija se spominje u Homerovoj Ilijadi kao Maionia ili Maeonia, a prema grčkim izvorima regija je naziv „Lidija“ dobila prema kralju Lidu. Herodot tvrdi kako su Lidijci izumili kovani novac, kojeg su kovali od zlata i srebra. Sredinom 6. stoljeća pr. Kr. Lidijom je vladao kralj Krez koji je bio poznat po golemom bogatstvu, pa i danas postoji uzrečica „Bogat kao Krez“. Krez je financirao gradnju Artemidinog hrama u Efezu koji spada u sedam svjetskih čuda. Godine 546. pr. Kr. perzijski vladar Kir Veliki osvaja Lidiju koja postaje perzijska pokrajina.


Sard (s ɑr d ɪ s) ili Sardes (s ɑr d sam z, lidijsko: Sfard, starogrčki: Σάρδεις Sardeis; staroperzijski: Sparda) je drevni grad na mjestu današnje Sart (Sartmahmut prije 19. listopada 2005.) u Turskoj u Manisa provinciji. Sard je bio glavni grad drevnog kraljevstva Lidije, je jedan od važnijih gradova Perzijskog Carstva, sjedišta namjesnika pod Rimskim Carstvom, a metropola provincije Lydia u kasnijem rimskom i bizantskom dobu. Kao jedan od sedam crkava u Aziji, upućena je od Ivana u Knjizi Otkrivenja u Bibliji. Njegova važnost je zbog, prvo svoje vojne snage, drugo na važnoj autocesti koja vodi od unutrašnjosti do Egejskog mora, a treće na široku i plodnu ravnicu u Hermusu.

"Spard" ili "Sard", drugo ime usko povezano s imenom Tirensko, bio je glavni grad zemlje Lidije, izvorni dom od Tyrrhenians; je iz Grci kao "Sardu". Ime konzervirani grčkim i egipatskim vizualizacije je "Sard," jer Grci ga zovu "Sardu" a ime se pojavljuje u egipatskim natpisima kao "Srdn."