Shiva


Shiva

Shiva (/ˈʃivə/; Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.

Shiva is the "destroyer of evil and the transformer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe. In the goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power (Shakti) of each, with Parvati the equal complementary partner of Shiva. He is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism.

According to the Shaivism sect, the highest form of Shiva is formless, limitless, transcendent and unchanging absolute Brahman, and the primal Atman (soul, self) of the universe. Shiva has many benevolent and fearsome depictions. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives an ascetic life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati and his two children, Ganesha and Kartikeya. In his fierce aspects, he is often depicted slaying demons. Shiva is also known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron god of yoga, meditation and arts.

The iconographical attributes of Shiva are the serpent around his neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river Ganga flowing from his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead, the trishula as his weapon and the damaru. He is usually worshipped in the aniconic form of Lingam.

The reverence for Shiva is one of the pan-Hindu traditions, found widely across India, Sri Lanka and Nepal. While Shiva is revered broadly, Hinduism itself is a complex religion and a way of life, with a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions. It has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, panentheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.

Shaivism is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology that is predominantly related to the Hindu god Shiva. Shaivism has many different sub-traditions with regional variations and differences in philosophy. Shaivism has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualism, dualism, and mixed schools.

Shaivism centers around Shiva, but it has many sub-traditions whose theological beliefs and practices vary significantly. They range from dualistic devotional theism to monistic meditative discovery of Shiva within oneself. Within each of these theologies, there are two sub-groups. One sub-group is called Vedic-Puranic, who use the terms such as "Shiva, Mahadeva, Maheshvara and others" synonymously, and they use iconography such as the Linga, Nandi, Trishula (trident), as well as anthropomorphic statues of Shiva in temples to help focus their practices. Another sub-group is called esoteric, which fuses it with abstract Sivata (feminine energy) or Sivatva (neuter abstraction), wherein the theology integrates the goddess (Shakti) and the god (Shiva) with Tantra practices and Agama teachings. There is a considerable overlap between these Shaivas and the Shakta Hindus.

The similarities between the iconography and theologies of Shiva with Greek and European deities have led to proposals for an Indo-European link for Shiva, or lateral exchanges with ancient central Asian cultures. His contrasting aspects such as being terrifying or blissful depending on the situation, are similar to those of the Greek god Dionysus, as are their iconic associations with bull, snakes, anger, bravery, dancing and carefree life. The ancient Greek texts of the time of Alexander the Great call Shiva as "Indian Dionysius", or alternatively call Dionysius as "god of the Orient". Similarly, the use of phallic symbol as an icon for Shiva is also found for Irish, Nordic, Greek (Dionysus) and Roman deities, as was the idea of this aniconic column linking heaven and earth among early Indo-Aryans, states Roger Woodward. Others contest such proposals, and suggest Shiva to have emerged from indigenous pre-Aryan tribal origins.


Bhairava

  • Third eye: Shiva is often depicted with a third eye, with which he burned Desire (Kāma) to ashes, called "Tryambakam" (Sanskrit: त्र्यम्बकम्), which occurs in many scriptural sources. In classical Sanskrit, the word ambaka denotes "an eye", and in the Mahabharata, Shiva is depicted as three-eyed, so this name is sometimes translated as "having three eyes". However, in Vedic Sanskrit, the word ambā or ambikā means "mother", and this early meaning of the word is the basis for the translation "three mothers". These three mother-goddesses who are collectively called the Ambikās. Other related translations have been based on the idea that the name actually refers to the oblations given to Rudra, which according to some traditions were shared with the goddess Ambikā.
  • Crescent moon: Shiva bears on his head the crescent moon. The epithet Candraśekhara (Sanskrit: चन्द्रशेखर "Having the moon as his crest" – candra = "moon"; śekhara = "crest, crown") refers to this feature. The placement of the moon on his head as a standard iconographic feature dates to the period when Rudra rose to prominence and became the major deity Rudra-Shiva. The origin of this linkage may be due to the identification of the moon with Soma, and there is a hymn in the Rig Veda where Soma and Rudra are jointly implored, and in later literature, Soma and Rudra came to be identified with one another, as were Soma and the moon.
  • Ashes: Shiva iconography shows his body covered with ashes (bhasma, vibhuti). The ashes represent a reminder that all of material existence is impermanent, comes to an end becoming ash, and the pursuit of eternal soul and spiritual liberation is important.
  • Matted hair: Shiva's distinctive hair style is noted in the epithets Jaṭin, "the one with matted hair", and Kapardin, "endowed with matted hair" or "wearing his hair wound in a braid in a shell-like (kaparda) fashion". A kaparda is a cowrie shell, or a braid of hair in the form of a shell, or, more generally, hair that is shaggy or curly.
  • Blue throat: The epithet Nīlakaṇtha (Sanskrit नीलकण्ठ; nīla = "blue", kaṇtha = "throat"). Since Shiva drank the Halahala poison churned up from the Samudra Manthan to eliminate its destructive capacity. Shocked by his act, Parvati squeezed his neck and stopped it in his neck to prevent it from spreading all over the universe, supposed to be in Shiva's stomach. However the poison was so potent that it changed the color of his neck to blue.
  • Meditating yogi: his iconography often shows him in a Yoga pose, meditating, sometimes on a symbolic Himalayan Mount Kailasha as the Lord of Yoga.
  • Sacred Ganga: The epithet Gangadhara, "Bearer of the river Ganga" (Ganges). The Ganga flows from the matted hair of Shiva. The Gaṅgā (Ganga), one of the major rivers of the country, is said to have made her abode in Shiva's hair.
  • Tiger skin: Shiva is often shown seated upon a tiger skin.
  • Serpents: Shiva is often shown garlanded with a snake.
  • Trident: Shiva typically carries a trident called Trishula. The trident is a weapon or a symbol in different Hindu texts. As a symbol, the Trishul represents Shiva's three aspects of "creator, preserver and destroyer", or alternatively it represents the equilibrium of three Gunas of "sattva, rajas and tamas".
  • Drum: A small drum shaped like an hourglass is known as a damaru. This is one of the attributes of Shiva in his famous dancing representation known as Nataraja. A specific hand gesture (mudra) called ḍamaru-hasta (Sanskrit for "ḍamaru-hand") is used to hold the drum. This drum is particularly used as an emblem by members of the Kāpālika sect.
    Axe (Parashu) and Deer are held in Shiva's hands in south Indian icons.
  • Rosary beads: he is garlanded with or carries a string of rosary beads in his right hand, typically made of Rudraksha. This symbolises grace, mendicant life and meditation.
  • Nandī: Nandī, also known as "Nandin", is the name of the bull that serves as Shiva's mount (Sanskrit: vāhana). Shiva's association with cattle is reflected in his name Paśupati, or Pashupati (Sanskrit: पशुपति), translated by Sharma as "lord of cattle" and by Kramrisch as "lord of animals", who notes that it is particularly used as an epithet of Rudra.
  • Mount Kailāsa: Mount Kailash in the Himalayas is his traditional abode. In Hindu mythology, Mount Kailāsa is conceived as resembling a Linga, representing the center of the universe.
  • Gaṇa: The Gaṇas are attendants of Shiva and live in Kailash. They are often referred to as the bhutaganas, or ghostly hosts, on account of their nature. Generally benign, except when their lord is transgressed against, they are often invoked to intercede with the lord on behalf of the devotee. His son Ganesha was chosen as their leader by Shiva, hence Ganesha's title gaṇa-īśa or gaṇa-pati, "lord of the gaṇas".
  • Varanasi: Varanasi (Benares) is considered to be the city specially loved by Shiva, and is one of the holiest places of pilgrimage in India. It is referred to, in religious contexts, as Kashi.

Shiva is depicted as both an ascetic yogi and as a householder (grihasta), roles which have been traditionally mutually exclusive in Hindu society. When depicted as a yogi, he may be shown sitting and meditating. His epithet Mahāyogi ("the great Yogi: Mahā = "great", Yogi = "one who practices Yoga") refers to his association with yoga. While Vedic religion was conceived mainly in terms of sacrifice, it was during the Epic period that the concepts of tapas, yoga, and asceticism became more important, and the depiction of Shiva as an ascetic sitting in philosophical isolation reflects these later concepts.

Lingam

Lingam (Sanskrit: लिंगम्, IAST: liṅgaṃ, .lit sign, symbol or mark), linga, Shiva linga, ling or Shiva ling, is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity, Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects. In traditional Indian society, the linga is seen as a symbol of the energy and potential of Shiva himself.

Apart from anthropomorphic images of Shiva, he is also represented in aniconic form of a lingam. These are depicted in various designs. One common form is the shape of a vertical rounded column in the centre of a lipped, disk-shaped object, the yoni, symbolism for the goddess Shakti. In Shiva temples, the linga is typically present in its sanctum sanctorum and is the focus of votary offerings such as milk, water, flower petals, fruit, fresh leaves, and rice. According to Monier Williams and Yudit Greenberg, linga literally means "mark, sign or emblem", and also refers to a "mark or sign from which the existence of something else can be reliably inferred". It implies the regenerative divine energy innate in nature, symbolized by Shiva. Some scholars, such as Wendy Doniger, view linga merely as an erotic phallic symbol, although this interpretation is disputed by others, including Swami Vivekananda, Sivananda Saraswati, and S. N. Balagangadhara. According to Moriz Winternitz, the linga in the Shiva tradition is "only a symbol of the productive and creative principle of nature as embodied in Shiva", and it has no historical trace in any obscene phallic cult.

The worship of the lingam originated from the famous hymn in the Atharva-Veda Samhitâ sung in praise of the Yupa-Stambha, the sacrificial post. In that hymn, a description is found of the beginningless and endless Stambha or Skambha, and it is shown that the said Skambha is put in place of the eternal Brahman. Just as the Yajna (sacrificial) fire, its smoke, ashes, and flames, the Soma plant, and the ox that used to carry on its back the wood for the Vedic sacrifice gave place to the conceptions of the brightness of Shiva's body, his tawny matted hair, his blue throat, and the riding on the bull of the Shiva, the Yupa-Skambha gave place in time to the Shiva-Linga. In the text Linga Purana, the same hymn is expanded in the shape of stories, meant to establish the glory of the great Stambha and the superiority of Shiva as Mahadeva.

The oldest known archaeological linga as an anicon of Shiva is the Gudimallam lingam from 3rd-century BCE. In Shaivism pilgrimage tradition, twelve major temples of Shiva are called Jyotirlinga, which means "linga of light", and these are located across India.

The lingam is a column-like or oval (egg-shaped) symbol of Shiva, the Formless All-pervasive Reality, made of stone, metal, or clay. The Shiva Linga is a symbol of Lord Shiva – a mark that reminds of the Omnipotent Lord, which is formless. In Shaivite Hindu temples, the linga is a smooth cylindrical mass symbolising Shiva. It is found at the centre of the temple, often resting in the middle of a rimmed, disc-shaped structure, a representation of Shakti. There is an inclination to reduce the Shiva linga and Shakti yoni, the two main Tantric symbols of ascending and descending forces – which are often represented by upright conical stones for the Shiva linga and ring stones or basis for the Shakti yoni – to merely the male and female sex organs, which is but one of their many reflections, and their erotic glorification. There is a tradition of Tantric sexuality of mithuna which uses sacred sex as part of Yoga practice. But it is not the only practice of Tantric Yoga, much less the highest, and when done is integrated into a much larger array of practices.

According to Swami Sivananda, the view that the Shiva lingam represents the phallus is a mistake. The same sentiments were also expressed by H. H. Wilson in 1840. Diana Eck believes that translators of Shiva Purana erroneously translated linga as "phallic emblem". She compares the mistranslation "as inadequate as it would be an interpretation of the Christian Eucharist that saw the rite first and foremost as ritual cannibalism, eating the body and drinking its blood".

Rudra transformacija iz dvosmisleno karakterizira božanstvo do vrhovnog bića počela je u Shvetashvatara Upanišadi (400-200 BC), koji je osnovao tradiciju Rudra-Shiva obožavanja. Ovdje su identificirani kao kreatora svemira i osloboditeljima duša od rođenja-preporod ciklusa. Razdoblje 200 BC do 100 AD također označava početak Shaiva tradicije fokusiran na obožavanje Shive, s referencama na Shaiva asketa u Patanjali 's Mahābhāṣya iu Mahabharati.
U Shaiva Purane , osobito Shiva Purana i Linga Purana, raspraviti različite oblike Shive i kozmologiju povezane s njim. U Tantri, u sastavu između 8. i 11. stoljeća, smatraju se kao Sruti. Među njima Shaiva agamama, rekao da su objavljene od Šive sebe i temeljne tekstove za Shaiva Siddhante.

Prema Vijay Nath:

Visnu i Siva [...] počeli apsorbirati bezbroj lokalnih kultova i božanstva u njihovim naborima. Potonji su ili poduzeti kako bi se predstavljaju višestruke aspekte istog boga, ili su trebali označavati različite oblike i nazivi kojima se Bog došao da bude poznat i pokloni se. [...] Siva postao identificiran sa bezbroj lokalnih kultova po strmim suffixing od Isa ili Iśvara na ime lokalnog božanstva, npr Bhutesvara, Hatakesvara, Chandesvara.

Shaivism je jedna od četiri glavne sekti hinduizma, a ostali su vaišnavizma, Shaktism i Smàrta tradiciju. Sljedbenici Shaivism, pod nazivom "Shaivas", Revere Shiva kao Vrhovnog Bića. Shaivas vjeruju da je Šiva je sve iu svemu, tvorac, održavatelj, razarač, objavitelj i korektor svega što jest. Tantrički Shaiva tradicija se sastoji od Kapalikas, Kashmir Shaivism i Shaiva Siddhante. Shiva Purana je jedan od Purana, žanr hinduističkih vjerskih tekstova, posvećen Šivi. Shaivism je rasprostranjena u cijeloj Indiji, Nepalu i Šri Lanki, uglavnom. Područja značajne za praksu Shaivism uključuju dijelove jugoistočne Azije, posebno Maleziji, Singapuru i Indoneziji. Indologinja Axel Michaels sugerira da Shaivism, kao vaišnavizma, podrazumijeva jedinstvo koje se ne mogu jasno naći ni u religijske prakse ili u filozofskom i ezoterijske doktrine.

Shaivism


 

Kundalini

Kundalini is considered to occur in the chakra and nadis of the subtle body. Each chakra is said to contain special characteristics and with proper training, moving Kundalini through these chakras can help express or open these characteristics.

Kundalini is described as a sleeping, dormant potential force in the human organism full citation needed] It is one of the components of an esoteric description of the "subtle body", which consists of nadis (energy channels), chakras (psychic centres), prana (subtle energy), and bindu (drops of essence).

Kundalini is described as being coiled up at the base of the spine. The description of the location can vary slightly, from the rectum to the navel.:229–231 Kundalini is said to reside in the triangular shaped sacrum bone in three and a half coils.

Kundalini has been described as "a residual power of pure desire" by Nirmala Srivastava and "a huge volume of energy" that is latent within a person by Jaggi Vasudev.

Ramana Maharshi mentioned that Kundalini is nothing but the natural energy of the Self, where Self is the universal consciousness (Paramatma) present in every being and that the individual mind of thoughts cloaks this natural energy from unadulterated expression. Advaita teaches self-realization, enlightenment, God-consciousness, and nirvana. But initial Kundalini awakening is just the beginning of the actual spiritual experience. Self-inquiry meditation is considered a very natural and simple means of reaching this goal.

Swami Vivekananda describes Kundalini briefly in his book Raja Yoga as follows:

According to the Yogis, there are two nerve currents in the spinal column, called Pingalâ and Idâ, and a hollow canal called Sushumnâ running through the spinal cord. At the lower end of the hollow canal is what the Yogis call the "Lotus of the Kundalini". They describe it as triangular in a form in which, in the symbolical language of the Yogis, there is a power called the Kundalini, coiled up. When that Kundalini awakens, it tries to force a passage through this hollow canal, and as it rises step by step, as it were, layer after layer of the mind becomes open and all the different visions and wonderful powers come to the Yogi. When it reaches the brain, the Yogi is perfectly detached from the body and mind; the soul finds itself free. We know that the spinal cord is composed in a peculiar manner. If we take the figure eight horizontally (∞), there are two parts which are connected in the middle. Suppose you add eight after eight, piled one on top of the other, that will represent the spinal cord. The left is the Ida, the right Pingala, and that hollow canal which runs through the center of the spinal cord is the Sushumna. Where the spinal cord ends in some of the lumbar vertebrae, a fine fiber issues downwards, and the canal runs up even within that fiber, only much finer. The canal is closed at the lower end, which is situated near what is called the sacral plexus, which, according to modern physiology, is triangular in form. The different plexuses that have their centers in the spinal canal can very well stand for the different "lotuses" of the Yogi.

When Kundalini Shakti is conceived as a goddess, then, when it rises to the head, it unites itself with the Supreme Being of (Lord Shiva). The aspirant then becomes engrossed in deep meditation and infinite bliss. Paramahansa Yogananda in his book God Talks With Arjuna: The Bhagavad Gita states:

At the command of the yogi in deep meditation, this creative force turns inward and flows back to its source in the thousand-petaled lotus, revealing the resplendent inner world of the divine forces and consciousness of the soul and spirit. Yoga refers to this power flowing from the coccyx to spirit as the awakened kundalini.

Paramahansa Yogananda also states:

The yogi reverses the searchlights of intelligence, mind and life force inward through a secret astral passage, the coiled way of the kundalini in the coccygeal plexus, and upward through the sacral, the lumbar, and the higher dorsal, cervical, and medullary plexuses, and the spiritual eye at the point between the eyebrows, to reveal finally the soul's presence in the highest center (Sahasrara) in the brain.


Muladhara

Muladhara čakra prikazana je sa 4 latice kojima pripadaju slogovi vam, am, sham i sam. U središtu je mantra LAM okruženo četverokutom – simbolom zemlje. Muladhara je crvene boje.
Muladhara je prva glavna čakra, predstavlja korijen iliti temelj cijelog energetskog sustava u čovjeka, prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma
Muladhara je smještene kod trtične kosti, između međice i anusa. U tijelu utječe na debelo crijevo, anus, kosti, noge i stopala. Povezana je sa nadbubrežnom žlijezdom koja međuostalim luči i adrenalin – «hormon stresa»
Muladhara preuzima i pretvara energiju iz zemlje i prirode i opskrbljuje ostale čakre. U temeljnoj čakri se nalazi i temelj kundalini shakti, potencijalne energije koja ako je aktivira, uzdiže tijelom poput zmije i tako doprinosi stanjima viših duhovnih «razina».
Muladhara je i temelj za tri glavna energetska kanala – «nadiji» koji se uzdižu od nje, a to su Ida, Pingala i Sushumna.

 

Swadhisthana

Swadhisthana čakra prikazana je sa 6 latica kojima pripadaju slogovi "bam", "bham", "mam", "yam", "ram" i "lam". Središnja mantra ove čakre je VAM. Pripadajući simbol je lik mladog mjeseca. Swadhisthana je narančaste boje.
Swadhisthana je druga glavna čakra prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma. Zove se još sakralna čakra.
Swadhisthana je smještena u području sakruma odnosno iznad spolnih organa, zove se još sakralna čakra i povezuje se sa spolnošću. Može se reći da se nalazi za "dva prsta" iznad Muladhare.
Ona je središte spolnosti i životne radosti. U prijevodu "Swadshisthana" znači "slatkoća", što u sanskrtu ukazuje na tjelesnu (putenu) radost. Preko njenog utjecaja na spolne žlijezde - testise i ovarije ona može utjecati i na raspoloženje i osjećaje.
Može se povezati sa podsvjesnim, uspostavlja vezu s podsvjesnim, i sa emocijama. Tako Swadhisthana navodno sadrži nesvjesne želje, pogotovo seksualne prirode. Iz tog razloga je kundalini energiju (energija svjesnosti) vrlo teško dići iznad čakre Swadhisthane
Glavne teme Swadhisthane su poput kreativnosti, spolnosti, stvaralačkom životnom energijom i putenosti.

 

Manipura

Manipura čakra prikazana je sa 10 latica kojima pripadaju slogovi dda, ddha, nna, ta, tha, da, dha, na, pa, and pha. Središnja mantra ove čakre je RAM. Pripadajući simbol je trokut. Manipura je žute, zlatnožute boje.
Manipura je treća glavna čakra prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma. Zove se još pupčana čakra i ona je središte solarnog pleksusa. U samom prijevodu Manipura znači sjajni dragulj, a može se prevesti i sa "ispunjeno dragim kamenjem"
Manipura čakra nalazi se u područja pupka odnosno solarnog pleksusa. Između prvog pršljena i dvanaestog kralješka torakalnog dijela kralješnice.
Manipura je početno središte za 72000 nadia, fini energetski kanali koji se od pupka šire po cijelom tijelu. Time, manipura prikuplja pranu (životna energija) i distribuira ju po cijelom tijelu.

 

Anahata

Anahata je četvrta glavna čakra prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma. Predstavlja prsno središte, a zove se još i srčana čakra. U prijevodu, anahata znači neoštećen ili neokrnjen.
Anahata čakra se nalazi u prsnom košu, na visini srca ali u sredini prsa.
Anahata čakra se povezuje sa mogučnošću donošenja odluke koje su izvan domene karme. U čakrama ispod anahate, Manipura, Swadhisthana i Muladhara, čovjek je vezan zakonima karme. U anahata čakri, čovjek donosi odluke "slijedeći srce", a ne zbog ne ispunjenih emocija ili prirode strasti.
Anahata spaja donje tri čakre sa gornje tri. Donje tri čakre su povezane s instiktima, a gornje tri predstavljaju višu ljudsku svijest. Davidova zvijezda u anahata čakri je sastavljena od dva trokuta, od kojih jedan gleda prema gore, a drugi prema dolje. Trokut prema gore prestavlja boga Šivu - on je svijest, a trokut prema dolje je Šakti - božanska pramajka i ona je energija.


Anahata

 

Vishuddha

Vishuddha je peta glavna čakra prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma.
Predstavlja grkljansko središte, a zove se još i vratna čakra. U prijevodu, Vishuddha znači čistiti.
Vishuddha simbolizira čistu svjesnost i kreativnost. Na psihičkoj razini ona upravlja izrazom, insipracijom, govorom i vještinama govora, percepcijom modela praoblika.
Smještena je kod cervikalnog dijela kralješnice, u području grkljana. Središte je zvuka i riječi.
Vishuddha povezuje čakra glave sa srčanim središtem, na taj način je odgovorna za ravnotežu osjećaja i intelekta. Važna je za pravilno izražavanje i iznošenje unutrašnjeg svijeta bez iskrivljavanja, ravnotežno iznošenje osjećaja i intelekta.
Povezana je sa učenjem i koncentracijom.
Kad je Vishuddha čakra otvorena, negativna iskustva se transformiraju u mudrosti i učenje.

 

Ajna

Ajna je šesta glavna čakra prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma. Zove se još čeona čakra ili i treće oko. U prijevodu, ajna znači znanje, spoznaja.
Ajna čakra prikazana je sa 2 latice kojima pripadaju slogovi ham i ksham. U središtu je mantra KSHAM ili OM . Ajna je tamnoplave, indigo boje.
Ajna čakra se nalazi na sredini čela iznad korijena nosa, između obrva. Dvije latice ajna čakre predstavljaju dva energetska kanala Ida i Pingala koji ju spajaju sa središnjim energetski kanalom Sušumna prije izdizanja krunske čakre Sahasrara. Na lijevoj latici se nalazi slog ham, a na desnoj latici je slog ksham, bija mantre za božanstva Šiva i Šakti.
Ajna se podrazumijeva kao čakra uma. Kada se nešto vidi u snu ili "okom uma", viđeno je zapravo Ajnom.
U Ajna čakri se nalazi božanstvo Ardhanarishvara kao hermafrodit Šive i Šakti, simbolizirajući dualnost subjekta i objekta, Šiva je tu kozmička svijest, a Šakti životna snaga. Još jedno božanstvo koje se nalazi u Ajni je Šakti Hakini, androgini bog koji predstavlja i muško i žensko. Dvije latice predstavljaju dualnost, a krug je praizvor bitka.
Duhovni razvoj, kundalini, na razini čeone čakre omogućuje intuitivnu spoznaju, viđenje stvarnosti nadvladane dualnosti, samospoznaju, sjedinjuju se intelekt i intucija, muško i žensko, nema dualnosti samo "prava" slika, svijest mira.

 

Sahasrara

Sahasrara je sedma, odnosno zadnja glavna čakra, prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma. Sahasrara čakra s tisuću latica
Sahasrara u prijevodu znači tisućuslojan, tisućustruki, tisuću. Ona je tjemeno središte, zove se još i krunska čakra. Brojka od tisuću latica predstavlja savršenstvo, ona je kontakt s najvišom sviješću, prebivalište Šive - čista svijest. 1000 Latica je raspoređeno u 20 slojeva s po 50 latica.
Sahasrara je smještena na vrhu, samom tjemenu glave i okrenuta je prema gore.
Sahasrara simbolizira odvojenje od iluzije, esencijalni element u postizanju više svijesti gdje je jedno sve i sve je jedno. Sahasrara poznata i kao lotos s tisuću latica, je najsuptilnija čakra u sustavu čakri i upravo od nje proizlaze sve ostale čakre.
Kada jogin konačno uspije podići kundalini (energiju svijesnosti) do sedme čakre, on postiže samadhi, jedinstvo s Bogom, univerzumom, kozmičkom svijesti... Svijet postaje viđen drugim očima, čovjek vidi ono što zaista jest.
Sjedinjenje čiste svijesti krunske čakre sa snagom donjih čakri prekida beskonačni krug umiranja i rađanja, osoba doživljava preobražaj u mahatmu - veliku dušu.


Om Namah Shivaya

Om Namaḥ Śivāya) is one of the most popular Hindu Mantra and the most important mantra in Shaivism. This mantra is dedicated to Lord Shiva . This Mantra appears as 'Na' 'Ma' 'Śi' 'Vā' and 'Ya' in the Yajurveda in the Shri Rudram hymn.

Namah Shivaya means "adoration (namas) to Lord Shiva", preceded by the devotional syllable "Om". The syllable "Ya" at the end of the mantra denotes an offering. Thus the mantra Om Namah Shivaya actually means "I offer to Shiva a respectful invocation of His Name", and not merely "I respectfully invoke His Name".

In Siddha Shaivism and Shaiva Siddhanta Shaivism tradition Nama Sivaya is considered as Pancha Bodha Tatva of Lord Shiva and his universal oneness of five elements:

  • "Na" sound represents earth
  • "Ma" sound represents water
  • "Śi" sound represents fire
  • "Vā" sound represents Pranic air
  • "Ya" sound represents sky or ether

Its total meaning is that "universal consciousness is one".

The five letters also represents:

  • Na is the Lord’s concealing grace
  • Ma is the world
  • Śi stands for Shiva
  • Vā is His revealing grace
  • Ya is the Ātman or soul

Origin

This Mantra appears as 'Na' 'Ma' 'Śi' 'Vā' and 'Ya' in the Yajurveda in the Shri Rudram hymn . Thus predates the use of Shiva as a proper name, in the original context being an address to Lord Rudra (later Shiva), where śiva retains its original meaning as an adjective, meaning "auspicious, benign, friendly", a euphemistic epithet of Rudra.

The Tamil Saivaite hymn Tiruvacakam begins with the five letters 'Na' 'Ma' 'Śi' 'Vā' and 'Ya'.

It is called Siva Panchakshara, or Shiva Panchakshara or simply Panchakshara meaning the "five-syllable" mantra (viz., excluding the Om) dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is the most holy salutation to Lord Shiva

Usage

This mantra is repeated verbally or mentally, drawing the mind in upon itself to Lord Shiva’s infinite, all-pervasive presence. Traditionally it is repeated 108 times a day while keeping count on a strand of rudraksha beads. This practice is called japa yoga. It is freely sung and chanted by everyone, but it is most powerful when given by one’s guru. Before this initiation which is called mantra diksha, the guru will usually require a period of study. This initiation is often part of a temple ritual, such as a puja, japa, homa (fire ceremony) , dhyana or and while smearing vibhuti. The guru whispers the mantra into the disciple’s right ear, along with instructions on how and when to chant it.

Effect

This mantra is associated with qualities of prayer, divine-love, grace, truth, and blissfulness. When done correctly, it calms the mind and brings spiritual insight and knowledge. It also keeps the devotee close to Shiva and within His protective global fellowship.

Traditionally, it is accepted to be a powerful healing mantra beneficial for all physical and mental ailments. Soulful recitation of this mantra brings peace to the heart and joy to the Ātman or soul. Many Hindu teachers consider that the recitation of these syllables is sound therapy for the body and nectar for the Ātman. [4] The nature of the mantra is the calling upon the higher self; it is the calling upon Shiva.


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