Noetic Academy Danel - This is a work in progress. Please send corrections, suggestions and faceplates to: noeticacademydanel AT


The Ubaid Period

The region of Sumer was long thought to have been first inhabited around 4500 BCE. This date has been contested in recent years, however, and it now thought that human activity in the area began much earlier. The first settlers were not Sumerians but a people of unknown origin whom archaeologists have termed the Ubaid people (from the excavated mound of al-Ubaid where the artifacts were uncovered which first attested to their existence) or the Proto-Euphrateans (which designates them as earlier inhabitants of the region of the Euphrates River).

Whoever these people were, they had already moved from a hunter-gatherer society to an agrarian one prior to 5000 BCE. Excavations from al-Ubaid and other sites throughout southern Iraq have uncovered stone tools from the Ubaid people such as hoes, knives, and adzes and clay artifacts which included sickles, bricks, painted pottery, and figurines. These people were the first agents of civilization in the region. At what point the people who came to be known as Sumerians entered the area is not known.

The Sumerian King List

Mesopotamians generally, and the Sumerians specifically, believed that civilization was the result of the gods’ triumph of order over chaos.

According to the Sumerian scholar Samuel Noah Kramer, “The first ruler of Sumer, whose deeds are recorded, if only in the briefest kind of statement, is a king by the name of Etana of Kish, who may have come to the throne quite early in the third millennium B.C. In the King List he is described as `he who stabilized all the lands’.” The Sumerian King List is a cuneiform document, written by a scribe of the city of Lagash, sometime around 2100 BCE which lists all of the kings of the region, and their accomplishments, in an attempt to show continuity of order in society dating back to the beginning of civilization.

As the Mesopotamians generally, and the Sumerians specifically, believed that civilization was the result of the gods’ triumph of order over chaos, the King List is thought to have been created to legitimize the reign of a king named Utu-Hegal of Uruk (who ruled c. 2100 BCE) by showing him as the most recent in a long line of rulers of the region. Etana is famous from the myth of the man who ascends to heaven on the back of an eagle and, like other kings mentioned in the list (Dumuzi and Gilgamesh among them) was known for superhuman feats and heroism. Utu-Hegal, it is thought, was trying to link himself to such earlier hero-kings through the creation of the King List. Since the Mesopotamians believed that the gods had set everything in motion, and that human beings were created as co-laborers with the gods to maintain order and hold back chaos, the early writers of history in the region concentrated more on the links between the rulers and their gods. Writing down the history of human accomplishments seems to have been considered a matter of little importance for these writers and, as a result, the early history of Sumer has been deduced from the archaeological and geological record more than a written tradition and much information is still unavailable to modern scholars.

Ruins of Ur

The Rise of Cities

Whenever the Sumerian civilization was first established in the region, by 3600 BCE they had invented the wheel, writing, the sail boat, agricultural processes such as irrigation, and the concept of the city (though China and India also lay claim to `the first cities’ in the world). It is generally accepted that the first cities in the world rose in Sumer and, among the most important, were Eridu, Uruk, Ur, Larsa, Isin, Adab, Kullah, Lagash, Nippur, and Kish. The city of Uruk is held to be the first true city in the world. It has been noted, again by Kramer, that these names are not Sumerian but come from the Ubaid people and so were founded, at least as villages, much earlier than c. 5000 BCE. Other cities in Sumer were Sippar, Shuruppak, Bad-tibira, Girsu, Umma, Urukag, Nina, and Kissura. All were of varying size and scope with Uruk the largest and most powerful at its prime.

With the establishment of the cities of Sumer, their history unfolds from approximately 5000 BCE to 1750 BCE when “the Sumerians ceased to exist as a people” (Kramer) after Sumer was invaded by the Elamites and Amorites. After the Ubaid Period (c. 5000-4100 BCE) came the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) in which cities began to emerge across the landscape and the city of Uruk rose in prominence. Though the period is named for the `first city’ of Uruk, Eridu was considered the first city by the Sumerians themselves, as previously noted. Trade was firmly established with foreign lands at this time and writing evolved from pictograms to cuneiform script. It is thought that trade was the main motivator in the development of writing as there now had to be some means for accurate, long-distance, communication between the merchants of Sumer and their agents abroad. The kingship also arose at this time and the city-states of Sumer came to be ruled by a single monarch who was assisted by a council of elders (which included both men and women). The kings following Etana were Semites, not Sumerians, as attested to by their names such as Enmebaraggesi of Kish. It is not until after the rule of eight kings passed that Sumerian names begin to appear in the King List.

Map of Sumer and Elam

The Akkadian Empire in Sumer

The Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE) saw the subtle shift from a priest-king (known as an ensi) to a more modern-day concept of `king’ known as a Lugal (`big man’). The city-states of Sumer during this time fought for control of arable land and water rights until the rise of the First Dynasty of Lagash in 2500 BCE. Under their king Eannutum, Lagash became the centre of a small empire which included most of Sumer and parts of neighboring Elam. This empire was still extant under the king Lugal-Zage when a young man, who later claimed to have been the king’s gardener, seized the throne. This was Sargon of Akkad who would go on to found the Akkadian Empire (2334-2154 BCE), the first multi-national empire in the world and, it is thought, based on the model set by Eannutum. The Akkadian Empire ruled over the majority of Mesopotamia, including Sumer, until a people known as the Gutians invaded from the north (the area of modern-day Iran) and destroyed the major cities. The Gutian Period (c. 2154-2047 BCE) is considered a dark age in Sumerian history (and Mesopotamian history overall) and the Gutians were universally reviled by Sumerian writers in later histories, most of which consider them a punishment sent by the gods.

The Sumerian Renaissance

The last period in Sumerian history is known as The Ur III Period (2047-1940 BCE) so named for the Third Dynasty of the city of Ur. This period is also known as The Sumerian Renaissance due to the remarkable advances in culture – touching upon virtually every single aspect of civilized human life – which were made. The kings of Ur, Ur-Nammu and Shulgi, set cultural advancement as the goal of their administrations and maintained a peace which allowed for art and technology to flourish. Whether invented before or during the Ur III Period, the tools, concepts, and technological innovations in place during the Third Dynasty of Ur solidified the Sumerian’s place in history as the creators of civilization as we know it. In Samuel Noah Kramer’s book History Begins at Sumer he lists 39 “firsts’ in history from the region among which are the first schools, the first proverbs and sayings, the first messiahs, the first Noah and the Flood stories, the first love song, the first aquarium, the first legal precedents in court cases, the first tale of a dying and resurrected god, the first funeral chants, first biblical parallels, and first moral ideas. The Sumerians also essentially invented time in that their sexigesimal system of counting (a system based on the number 60) created the 60-second minute and the 60-minute hour. They also divided the night and day into periods of 12 hours, set a limit on a `work day’ with a time for beginning and ending, and established the concept of `days off’ for holidays. The historian Bertman writes, “The hand of Mesopotamia still determines the hourly length of the traditional workday and even the length of our electronic entertainment (half-hour or hour TV shows) when our workday has stopped” (334). Bertman further notes that the modern day practice of checking one’s horoscope comes from ancient Sumer and that the astrological signs one is born under were first noted and named by the ancient Mesopotamians.

A Sumerian Wall Plaque Showing Libation Scenes

Ur-Nammu wrote the first legal code in Sumer which became the precedent for the much later, and better known, Code of Hammurabi of Babylon. The historian Paul Kriwaczek writes, “Ur-Nammu’s universal legal pronouncements present a good example of the unifying drive of Ur’s kings: the compulsion to regulate every aspect of life” (149). Sumer, under the unifying force of the Third Dynasty of Ur, became a Patrimonial State (“meaning one constructed on the pattern of the patriarchal family ruled by a father figure”, as Kriwaczek notes) in which the monarch served as the father figure who guided his children along a proper path toward prosperity. Ur-Nammu’s son, Shulgi, is considered the greatest of the Neo-Sumerian kings who continued his father’s policies but went further. In an effort to both impress his people, and distinguish himself from his father, Shulgi ran 100 miles (160.9 kilometres) between the religious centre of Nippur and the capital city of Ur and back again – in one day – in order to officiate at the festivals in both cities. Though some have considered the hymn which recounts his achievement as a kingly boast and highly exaggerated, scholars have determined that he could, in fact, have made his famous run and, further, that it was in keeping with the spirit of Shulgi’s rule. Creating a sense of awe and admiration in their subjects seems to have been central to the governing power of the kings of Ur at this time.

Sumer's Decline & Legacy

Under Shulgi’s reign, a wall was constructed 155 miles long (250 kilometres) to keep out the Semitic-speaking tribes known as the Martu or Tidnum but better known by their biblical name of Amorites. Shulgi’s son, grandson, and great-grandson all renovated and strengthened the wall to keep those they called `the barbarians’ out of Sumer proper but the barrier proved ineffective. The wall could not be properly manned or maintained and, further, was not anchored to any solid barrier at the end points and so invaders could simply follow the wall on the one side to either end point and then walk around it. The forces of neighboring Elam breached the wall and marched on Ur, sacking it and carrying away the king.

Following the Ur III Period and the fall of Ur, many Sumerians migrated north. Sumerian was no longer spoken as a language (though it was still written), having been largely replaced by the Semitic Akkadian, and the Sumerian culture was ended. Their legacy, however, continues in many aspects of civilization which those in the modern day take for granted as always existing. Even so, something as basic as the twenty-four hour day was invented, once upon a time, in Sumer.

Sumerian bull lyre

"Oduvijek smo znali" - objašnjava ekipa sa Berkleva - " da je u ranijoj asirsko - babilonskoj civilizaciji postojala glazba, ali dok nismo odgonetnuli note nismo znali da se radilo o istoj ljestvici od sedam dijatonskih tonova koja je karakteristična za suvremenu zapadnu glazbu, i grčku glazbu prvog tisućljeća pr.n.e." Do sada se smatralo da je zapadna glazba porijeklom iz Grčke: sada je ustanovljeno da naša glazba, kao i glazba zapadne civilizacije, potječe iz Mezopotamije.


To nas ne bi trebalo čuditi, jer je već grčki učenjak Filon izjavio kako su Mezopotamci bili poznati po tome što "traže svjetski sklad i slogu preko glazbenih tonova".

Nema sumnje da Sumeranima možemo pripisati prvenstvo u pitanjima glazbe i pjesme. Profesor Crocke je konstruirao liru poput one pronađene u ruševinama Ura i na njoj uspio odsvirati drevnu melodiju.



Nintu with their early failures to fashion proper workers

Ninmah ("Great Queen"); Nintu ("Lady of Birth"); Mamma or Mami (mother)

Ninhursag symbol

Ninhursag Enki





Hermes lyre


Stećci - Illyrians


Enki - Ea


Ea, "House of the water," with his divine word was creator of mankind from clay with the help of the Sumerian goddess Aruru (see the Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh and the wild man Enkidu). Ea was also patron of all arts, and the chief god of the Mesopotamian city of Eridu. In ancient times the year began with the entrance of the Sun into the constellation of Aries, March 21, and ended in February, the name "Anno" (Medieval Latin: anno, in the year) was given in honor of Oannes, identified with Janus (Roman god of gates and doorways, depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions or past wisdom and future knowledge). In Palestine Oannes was under the name Dagon.

Nanshe (symbol was a vase in which swam a fish) was the goddess of springs and waterways who was worshipped in Eridu and Lagash.

  • The Greek Naiads are nymphs of river and springs.

Sumerian symbols of the gods

Nannar, Inanna, Utu, Anu Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nergal Zababa, Ninurta, Marduk, Nabu, Bau, Adad, Shala, Nusku, Ningirsu, Shuqamuna, Shumalia, Ningishzidda, & Ishara

Ningishzidda, Nannar, Utu-Inanna, Enlil - Nabu, Ishara, Nusku, Nanshe, Marduk, Ninhursag, Shala, Enki, Ninurta, Zababa, Enlil, Anu, Adad, & unkn symbols

Enki - Enlil




Ningishzida (sum: dnin-ǧiš-zi-da) is a Mesopotamian deity of the underworld. He is the patron of medicine[citation needed], and may also be considered a god of nature and fertility. His name in Sumerian means “lord of the good tree”. In Sumerian mythology, he appears in Adapa’s myth as one of the two guardians of Anu’s celestial palace, alongside Dumuzi. He was sometimes depicted as a serpent with a human head.

The Sumerian god Ningizzida accompanied by two gryphons. It is the oldest known image of snakes coiling around an axial rod (royal scepter), dating from before 2000 BCE. (Medical Logo)

Ningishzida is the earliest known symbol of snakes twining (some say in copulation) around an axial rod. It predates the Caduceus of Hermes, the Rod of Asclepius and the staff of Moses by more than a millennium.

In the Louvre, there is a famous green steatitevase carved for king Gudea of Lagash (dated variously 2200–2025 BCE), dedicated by its inscription:

“To the god Ningiszida, his god Gudea, Ensi (governor) of Lagash, for the prolongation of his life, has dedicated this”.

The Adapa myth mentions Ningizzida and Tammuz (or Dumuzi) and refers to the serpent god as male.

NINGISHZIDDA (ENKI, ANU, ANSHAR, APSU) {aka Thoth, Tehuti, the Winged Serpent} NINGISHZIDDA was a genetics scientist, known in Egypt as the god, Thoth.

According to Zecharia Sitchin, NINGISHZIDDA went to the American continent (Yucatan) after being deposed by his brother, Marduk. During his sojourn in the lands which would become known as the Americas, NINGISHZIDDA was known as the “Winged Serpent.”

Ningishzidda established the Olmec’s and the Mayan’s cultures.


Enki, Ningishzida symbols

Enki & Ninhursag

Two composite beasts of a type called "lion-birds" draw back the portals of a sanctuary, where an apparition appears of the great Mesopotamian serpent-god Ningishzida, under the aspect of a pair of copulating vipers. The two are entwined about an axial rod in such a way as to suggest both the caduceus of classical Hermes, guide of souls to rebirth in eternal life, and the Indian diagram of seven spinal centers touched and wakened to consciousness in Kundalini yoga by the rising Serpent Power."

Ningishzidda's symbol of entwined serpants

Thoth Hermes Trismegistus and his Ancient School of Mysteries

Thoth Hermes Trismegistus is portrayed by the Egyptians as the moon god with the body of a man, head of an ibis, and a crescent moon over his head. His symbol was the winged serpent staff. He was the god of wisdom, letters, and time. But he was not only known to the Egyptians. To the Sumerians he was Ningizzida; he may have been Enoch to the Jews, Odin to the Scandinavians, Wotan to the Teutons, and some even suggest Buddha.

Before he was revered as a god, he was the first great Egyptian philosopher and founder of the Ancient Mystery Schools, receiving his wisdom while in meditative trances, writing over 40 books including (allegedly) the Emerald Tablet, The Book of Thoth and The Divine Pymander, with the Book of Thoth only being given to his enlightened initiates of the Mysteries.

A reconstruction of what the Emerald Tablet is believed to have looked like by the International Alchemy Guild.

The topics he covered ranged from medicine, chemistry, law, art, music, rhetoric, magic, philosophy, geography, mathematics, anatomy, and oratory. To the Egyptians, his knowledge was so vast and all-encompassing that they first began to credit him as the communicator with the gods, eventually inducting him into the Egyptian pantheon.

Whether or not one agrees his is the hand that penned the books attributed to him, a quick perusal or in-depth study resounds in most readers, due to the similarity with Buddhism and Christianity. Perhaps the clearest examples are his teachings on reincarnation and the creation of the world.

Thoth, the ancient Egyptian god of wisdom, depicted with the body of a man, head of an ibis, and a crescent moon over his head.

Nothing is for certain about the Book of Thoth other than the fact that it was written in Egyptian Hieroglyphics.  It was kept in a golden box in the inner sanctuary of the temple and only the highest initiate of the Hermetic Arcanum Mystery School had the key to it. It is said the book described the Key to Immortality, the process achieved through awakening certain areas of the brain, similar to the Buddhist monks’ practices.  Gardner and other authors claimed the awakening of the brain was achieved through meditation, the use of a white powder, and the priestesses’ sacred essence.

The most powerful of the Mystery Schools was known as the Royal School of the Master Craftsmen at Karnak, founded by Pharaoh Thuthmosis III, though as with all the Mystery Schools, it is commonly believed that the true founders resided in Sumeria, emigrating to Egypt, which ties in to Sitchin’s claims that Enki and his sons (including Ningizzida) had Magan (Egypt) as their domain.

This school was also known as the Great White Brotherhood due to the members choice of raiment (white robes) and their dedication to producing the white powder known to the Mesopotamians as Shem-an-na, the High-Ward Fire Stone, or ‘white bread’ to the Egyptians. Pictures of it show it being offered to the Pharaohs, in the shape of a cone.

Man holding the Shem-an-na, white powder

Petrie discovered on the top of Mount Sinai, an Egyptian Temple which contained a bewildering discovery:  laying some inches deep beneath heavy flagstones in a storeroom was a considerable supply of the finest pure white, unadulterated powder. Copper smelting and animal sacrifice were quickly ruled out.

Some of the mysterious powder was taken back to Britain for analysis and examination, but no results were ever published. The rest was left open to the elements after 3000 years to become a victim of the desert winds. What has become apparent, however, is that this powder was seemingly identical to the ancient Mesopotamian fire-stone or shem-an-na - the substance that was made into bread-cakes and used to feed the Babylonian kings and the pharaohs of Egypt. This, of course, explains the temple inscriptions denoting the importance of bread and light, while the white powder (the shem-an-na) has been identified with the sacred manna that Aaron placed in the Ark of the Covenant.

Petrie discovered a large quantity of pure white powder in a temple on top of Mount Sinai. ‘Ascent of the lower ranges of Mount Sinai’. Coloured lithograph by Louis Haghe after David Roberts, 1849.

Eventually the Mystery Schools went into decline as new Dynasties emerged. The initiates left Egypt and brought the Book of Thoth to another land. Where it is now, no one knows, though supposedly the chain of succession of Grand Master since Thoth, has remained unbroken. The Rosicrucians are said to be descended from his school while the Freemasons are descended from the school founded by Solomon.

 Buckets, Corn and the Tree of Life

A common Mesopotamian theme, found on many seals, and works of art is the appearance of what appears to be an image of the 'Tree of Life/knowledge' being harvested (or watered), by 'Winged people' or occasionally by 'Fish-people' as the cylinder seal below shows.

The 'Enuma Elish' epic of creation, describes the 'Half fish God' Eanna coming from the water following the 'great deluge' to bring knowledge to the Sumerians.

The Sumerian image of the 'tree of life/knowledge' is reminiscent of the later images of Greek 'Omphalos' or woven 'Navel Stones' - which in turn originated From Thebes in Egypt).


The eagle-headed winged protective spirit 'Djinn' shown here is known as an “Apkallu” spirit.

Although it is commonly suggested that these figures are 'watering' the 'tree of life' , the following images suggest otherwise.

In these images the 'cob' is not 'watering' the 'tree of life'.. suggesting it is being 'harvested' instead. 

This depiction is from Khorsabad, 8th century BC.

Although the character in the image changes from one image to another, an artistic significance is maintained over certain specific features such as the bucket, the wristband and the 'cob'.


Cob or Pineal Gland

It has been suggested that the 'cob' object could be a pine-cone. The pine-cone has a strong symbolism, being a reference to the 'Third-eye' or 'pineal-gland', so named because of its similarity in shape. The pine-cone is traditionally associated with immortality and knowledge. The Pineal gland is activated by Light, and it controls the various biorhythms of the body. It works in harmony with the hypothalamus gland, which directs the body's thirst, hunger, sexual desire and the biological clock, that determines our aging process.

"E. A. Wallis Budge has noted that in some of the papyri illustrating the entrance of the souls of the dead into the judgment hall of Osiris the deceased person has a pine cone attached to the crown of his head. The Greek mystics also carried a symbolic staff, the upper end being in the form of a pine cone, which was called the thyrsus of Bacchus. In the human brain there is a tiny gland called the pineal body, which is the sacred eye of the ancients, and corresponds to the third eye of the Cyclops. " Manly P. Hall.

The Egyptian Staff of Osiris, dating back to approximately 1224 BC, depicts two intertwining serpents rising up to meet at a pinecone.

Modern scholars and philosophers have noted the staff’s symbolic parallels to the Indian “Kundalini,” a spiritual energy in the body depicted as coiled serpents rising up from the base of the spine to the Third Eye (Pineal Gland) in the moment of enlightenment. Awakened Kundalini represents the merging and alignment of the Chakras, and is said to be the one and only way to attain the “Divine Wisdom” brining pure joy, pure knowledge and pure love.

In 1997, British Dr. Jennifer Luke extensively documented the Pineal Gland as the primary target for Fluoride accumulation in our bodies, where it calcifies the Pineal, inhibiting blood flow and “clogging” the basic functions of our Third Eye. By feeding the public Fluoride from birth, critics claim that our greater spiritual abilities are being dulled by chemically clouding our biological portal to spiritual awareness.

The Psychopharmacologist Rick Strassman believes the Third Eye/Pineal Gland to be the source of the psychedelic Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in our bodies. Strassman has hypothesized that large amounts of DMT are released in our bodies during heightened states of spiritual consciousness, such as birth, death and near-death experiences -- or perhaps during the awakening of our Kundalini in a moment of Enlightenment.

Synthesized DMT, or plants containing DMT are often used as recreational psychedelics, or in shamanic ceremonies, such as the Ayahuasca ceremony originating in South America. DMT and/or Ayahuasca users often report intensely entheogenic experiences of spiritual awakening, contact with entities of supernatural or spiritual origin, and the dilation or compression of time.

More about Drug-use in Prehistory


The following image is from La Venta, Mexico, in which we see a person carrying a similar bucket.


While this may well be a coincidence, it is strongly suspected that the 'Olmec' culture at La Venta was a multicultural colony from around 1,200 BC onwards. Several large Negroid heads were carved there between 700 and 800 BC, suggesting an African presence there at this time and there are several real-life depictions of people with oriental features.

More about the Olmecs


These images are from India. They also appear to show images of 'Maize' or 'Corn', as the pattern does not twist around the object in the way Pine cones do.

More about Ancient India


Sumerian pantheon

born to Namma
born to Namma
born to Uraš
maybe daughter of Enlil
Suen Nergal
maybe son of Enki
maybe born to Ninḫursaḡ
born to Uraš
Uttu Inana
maybe daughter of Enki
maybe son of Enki
Utu Ninkigal
married Nergal
Meškiaḡḡašer Banda
Enmerkar Gilgāmeš

Mesopotamian Gods & Kings


Anu - An


Anu’s wife was Antu, and their children were the Annunaki.

Annunaki were seven judges of nether world, children of the god Anu, who also sat before the throne of Ereshkigal (the wife of Nergal), she was the daughter of Demeter, Greek Persephone, Roman Proserpine, Gnostic Kore in other mythology. The Annunaki are regarded by some as the Sumerian ‘fates,’ where they waited at the gates of nether world, to judge the newly-arrived souls. The "Fates" were associated with Ursa Major, or the Pleiades (seven sisters) who were similar to the seven Hathors. Ananke the satellite of Jupiter that is 14th in distance from the planet [Greek Ananke, mother of Adrasteia (alias Nemesis a goddess of destiny, Egyptian Shait), distributor of rewards and punishments, by Jupiter, from ananke, necessity]. Adrasteia and Ida were Nymphs and daughters of the Cretan king, who cared for Zeus in a cave when he was a baby.

Anu had a fine temple at Uruk with an unusual twin towered ziggurat dating from 3000 B.C. As time went on Anu’s authority waned as the result of the success of the gods like Enlil. Anu as Enlil or Elil God of earth (nature) and wind (air and hurricanes, floods), child of An (heaven) and Ki (earth) whom he separated.

One of Anu’s sons was Gibil, alias Nusku (Nunska) who was an Assyrian fire god as in one  the four elements. Gibil was called governor of gods and men. His special task was to sit in judgment over the souls of men who in their lives had been unjust judges.

One of Anu’s daughters was Gulu the ancient name for the Earth Mother goddess, who was a consort of Ninurta (derived from Ningursu, was the son of Enlil who in Sumer and Akkad was the god of the constellation known as Orion). The name "Orion" is believed to have originated in the Euphrates area of ancient Akkad, and is derived from the Akkadian "Uru-Anna" (light of heaven). There is that connection to Anu again. Over time, the language corrupted to "Aryan," which is what the ancient Persians called themselves, and which became the modern idiom, "Iran."

Ancient Arabs knew the constellation of Orion as Al Jauzah and later Al Jabbar (meaning "the giant" or "great"). Arab astronomer Al Babadur said the constellation was originally called the "Strong One," but another, Scaliger, affirmed the name was a corruption of the Arab "Al Shuja" (the Snake). In the early astronomical works of Bayer and Chilmead, that word was translated as "Asugia" - the "madman."  Under the star names of Hydra, the Sea Serpent: there is other information that refers to the name - Minchir al Sugia which means "Tearing To Shreds of the Deceiver."  Under the star names of Lepus is Nihal which is adapted from the Arabic for "the camels slaking their thirst."  The name originally applied to the stars. Another meaning of Nihal is "The Mad."

Ninurta in Sumer and Akkad was a god of law, scribes, farming, and hunting and the god of the constellation Orion. Orion was the son of Poseidon. The motif of sibling rivalries was of Sumerian Enki verses Enlil, equal to Greek Poseidon verses Zeus, or Roman Neptune verses Jove.

Danu a Irish mother goddess of a brood of gods the Tuatha De Danann (Brian, Iuchar, and Iucharbar) also known as Anu or Ana - plenty. She is connected with Aine of Knockaine, a moon goddess of crops and cattle.

Symbol of the Sky

<< Mezopotamija Index Uruk >>

This is a work in progress. Please send corrections, suggestions and faceplates to: noeticacademydanel AT