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Teresh (Tw-ry-s')

The Teresh or Tursha are mentioned during the fifth year of Merneptah reign, (about 1207 BC), in the Great Karnak Inscription, between the enemies coalition faced by Egypt. In this document a total of 742 dead Teresh are accounted. During the reign of Ramesses III a Teresh chief is shown together other captive Sea Peoples in the Medinet Habu relief. Furthermore in the tomb 23 from Gurob the Archaeologist W. Flinders Petrie found the mummy of An-en-Tursha. He was a Teresh butler in the court of Rameses III. This well preserved mummy still shows fair hairs thus his origins was not from Egypt.

Several possibilities exist which may identify the Teresh as Anatolians. Teresh appears in a Hittite record as Taruisa. It is reasonable assumption that the people of Taruisa called themselves by some name close to this. Stripped of vowels so that it can be compared to the stripped Egyptian spelling.

The second possibility is relevant to the Tyrsenians a group of pirates with well decked ships mentioned in two works of about 700 BC in a poem known as Hymn to Dionysus, which tradition attributes to Homer. During the classical period Herodotus and Thucydides mention them under the name Tyrrhenians. Herodotus places these peoples in Lydia. Thucydides remarks that they were known to live on the island of Lesbos, offshore from Lydia. Lydia is the Classical period name for the land which in the Bronze Age was Arzawa, and possibly part of Seha River Land an area located in the near south of Taruisa. Some scholars suggested that the Tyrsenians may be related to the Etruscans in fact the Tyrhennian Sea - derived from a Greek term - still survives as a name for the waters between Tuscany and Corsica.

The third possibility shifts the geographic focus to the southeast coast of Anatolia. In a Hittite record containing a list of cities the names Kummanni, Zunnahara, Adaniya, Tarsa... appear together. These last two are more likely the cities of Adana and Tarsus, and thus is certain that the city of Tarsus was in existence in the Bronze Age. If the Egyptians were to ask a man of Tarsus where he came from, he might point in northerly direction and answer "from Tarsa" or "Tarsha" or "Tarssas" This answer would be written down by Egyptians as T-r-s or T-r-sh. Tarsus is close to the coast, and in later times an important port.


Tyrrhenians

The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek: Τυρρηνοί Turrhēnoi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic: Τυρσηνοί Tursēnoi; Doric: Τυρσανοί Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people.

While ancient sources have been interpreted in a variety of ways, one theory identifies the Tyrsenians with the Etruscan, Raeti, and Lemnian cultures, whose languages have been grouped together as the Tyrsenian languages based on strong similarities in their written languages.


Lemnos stele, Lemnian (Etruscan) inscriptions discovered in a crypt

Later, in the 6th to 5th centuries BC, the name referred specifically to the Etruscans, for whom the Tyrrhenian Sea is named, according to Strabo. In Pindar, the Tyrsanoi appear grouped with the Carthaginians as a threat to Magna Graecia:

I entreat you, son of Cronus, grant that the battle-shouts of the Carthaginians and Etruscans stay quietly at home, now that they have seen their arrogance bring lamentation to their ships off Cumae.

The name is also attested in a fragment by Sophocles.

The name becomes increasingly associated with the generic Pelasgians. Herodotus places them in Crestonia in Thrace, as neighbours of the Pelasgians. Similarly, Thucydides mentions them together with the Pelasgians and associates them with Lemnian pirates and with the pre-Greek population of Attica.

Lemnos remained relatively free of Greek influence up to Hellenistic times, and the Lemnos stele of the 6th century BC is inscribed with a language very similar to Etruscan. This has led to the postulation of a "Tyrrhenian language group" comprising Etruscan, Lemnian and Raetic.

Another hypothesis connecting the Tyrrhenians and the Etruscans posits that the Etruscans derive at least partially from a 12th-century BC invasion from the Aegean and Anatolia imposing itself over the Italic Villanovan culture, with some scholars claiming a relationship or at least evidence of close contact between the Anatolian languages and the Etruscan language. Adherents of this latter school of thought point to the legend of Lydian origin of the Etruscans referred to by Herodotus (Histories 1.94) and the statement of Livy that the Raetians were Etruscans driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls.

 
Glasinc - Tarkvinija

 

Tyrsenian languages

A larger Aegean family including Eteocretan, Minoan and Eteocypriot has been proposed by G. M. Facchetti, and is supported by S. Yatsemirsky, referring to some alleged similarities between on the one hand Etruscan and Lemnian (a language attested in the Aegean, widely thought to be related to Etruscan), and on the other hand some languages such as Minoan and Eteocretan. If these languages could be shown to be related to Etruscan and Rhaetic, they would constitute a pre-Indo-European family stretching from (at the very least) the Aegean islands and Crete across mainland Greece and the Italian peninsula to the Alps. Facchetti proposes a hypothetical language family derived from Minoan in two branches. From Minoan he proposes a Proto-Tyrrhenian from which would have come the Etruscan, Lemnian and Rhaetic languages. James Mellaart has proposed that this language family is related to the pre-Indo-European Anatolian languages, based upon place name analysis. From another Minoan branch would have come the Eteocretan language.

Tyrant Turan Tirana


Tyrsenian languages

 

Tartessos - Tarsus

Tartessos (Greek: Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC. Herodotus, for example, describes it as beyond the Pillars of Heracles (Strait of Gibraltar).

September 1923 archaeologists discovered a Phoenician necropolis in which human remains were unearthed and stones found with illegible characters. It may have been colonized by the Phoenicians for trade because of its richness in metals.

Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilisations.


Tartessos

Tarsus


Phoenician Trade

 

Herodot - Strabo

Herodotus's account (written c. 440 BC) refers to the myths of Io and Europa.

According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. These people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria ... - Herodotus, The History, I.1

The Greek historian Strabo believed that the Phoenicians originated from Bahrain. Herodotus also believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain. This theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: "In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, and Aradus, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, and exhibited relics of Phoenician temples." The people of Tyre in South Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, and the similarity in the words "Tylos" and "Tyre" has been commented upon. The Dilmun civilization thrived in Bahrain during the period 2200-1600 BC, as shown by excavations of settlements and Dilmun burial mounds.

Canaanite culture

Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture. Ghassulian itself developed from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of their ancestral Natufian and Harifian cultures with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) farming cultures, practicing the domestication of animals, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis which led to the Neolithic Revolution in the Levant. Byblos is attested as an archaeological site from the Early Bronze Age. The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, even though the Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite languages proper.

Preceded by: Tyrrhenians = Dilmun civilization

 

Ezekiel

Tire što govoraše: Ja sam lađa prekrasna, izvanredne ljepote. Tvoje međe sežu u more duboko, graditelji tvoji besprimjerno te lijepa načiniše. Od senirskih čempresa oplate ti sagradiše, cedar libanonski uzeše, jarbole ti podigoše; od bašanskih hrastova istesaše ti vesla, od bjelokosti i šimšira s kitijimskog otočja palubu ti načiniše! Od vezena lana egipatskog bijahu ti jedra da ti budu zastava! A grimiz i skrlet s eliških otoka staviše ti za krovišta. Žitelji Sidona i Arvada bjehu ti veslači, a mudraci tvoji, Tire, bijahu ti kormilari! Starješine gebalske i vještaci popravljahu kvarove tvoje. Sve morske lađe i mornari bijahu tvoji i s tobom trgovahu! Perzijanci, Ludijci i Putijci u tvojoj vojsci bijahu ratnici, u tebi vješahu štitove i kacige; oni ti sjaj davahu. Sinovi arvadski s vojnicima na bedemima tvojim uokrug čuvahu ti kule. O zidove ti uokolo štitove vješahu da uzveličaju jedinstvenu ljepotu tvoju! Zbog bogatstva tvoga golemog čak i Taršiš s tobom trgovaše, plaćajući srebrom i gvožđem, olovom i kositrom trg tvoj. Javan i Tubal i Mešek s tobom trgovahu: davahu ljude i suđe mjedeno za trg tvoj. Oni iz Bet Togarme davahu konje, trkaće konjiće i mazge. I sinovi Dedanovi s tobom trgovahu. Mnogi ti otoci bijahu podložni: plaćahu ti daću u bjelokosti i ebanovini. Zbog obilja robe tvoje Edom s tobom trgovaše. Davahu ti za trg dragulje, purpur i vezivo, koralje, rubine i bez; i Judeja i zemlja Izraelova trgovahu s tobom: minitskim žitom, voskom, medom, uljem i balzamom trg tvoj plaćahu! Zbog obilja trga tvojeg, silnoga ti blaga, i Damask s tobom trgovaše za helbonsko vino i saharsku vunu. I Dan i Javan iz Uzala za trg tvoj prekaljeno gvožđe mijenjahu, cimet i slatku trsku. Dedan s tobom trgovaše prostirkama jahačkim. Arapi i kedarski knezovi mijenjahu se s tobom, trg ti plaćajući jaganjcima, jarcima i ovnovima. Trgovci iz Šebe i Rame trgovahu s tobom, za trg ti davahu najbolje dragulje i zlato. Haran, Kane i Eden, trgovci Šebe, Asirije i Kišmada trgovahu s tobom. Mijenjahu za trg tvoj skupocjene halje, purpurne i vezene plašteve, sagove šarene i užad čvrsto pletenu. Taršiške su lađe nakrcane prevozile robu tvoju! Bješe tako puna i teška veoma. Na pučinu morsku, na mnoga te mora izvedoše veslači.

Bješe, eto, od Daniela mudriji, nijedna ti tajna ne bje skrivena! Mudrošću svojom i razborom nateče bogatstva, riznicu napuni srebrom i zlatom! Mudar li bijaše trgovac, bogatstvo svoje namnoži! Al' ti se s bogatstva srce uzoholi.'

Gle, ti bješe uzor savršenstva, pun mudrosti i čudesno lijep! U Edenu, vrtu Božjem, ti življaše, resio te dragulj svaki, sard, topaz i dijamant, krizolit, oniks i jaspis, safir, smaragd i zlato. Načinjeni bjehu bubnjevi i frule, na dan ti rođenja bjehu pripravljeni. Postavih te kao raskriljena keruba zaštitnika: bio si na svetoj gori Božjoj, hodio si posred ognjena kamenja. Savršen bješe na putima svojim od dana svojega rođenja dok ti se u srcu ne zače opačina. Obilno trgujući, napuni se nasiljem i sagriješi. Zato te zbacih s gore Božje, istrgoh te, kerube zaštitniče, isred ognjenoga kamenja. Srce ti se uzoholi zbog ljepote tvoje, mudrost svoju odnemari zbog svojega blaga!

 

Dilmun


Dilmun

The Sumerian tale of the garden paradise of Dilmun may have been an inspiration for the Garden of Eden story.

We suggest;

Garden of Eden = Dilmun

Dilmun civilization = Tyrrhenians, Teresh (ancient traders)


Haplogroup T-L206

 

Haplogroup T-L206, also known as haplogroup T1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The SNP that defines the T1 clade is L206. The haplogroup is one two primary branches of T (T-M184), the other being T2 (T-PH110).

T1 is the most common descendant of the T-M184 haplogroup, being the lineage of more than 95% of all T-M184 members in America, Australia, Africa, Asia and Europe. T1 lineages are found at high frequencies among northern Somali clans and at least, T1* could have spread with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB).

The rare basal paragroup T1* has been found in a Berber individual from Tunisia, a male in Syria, and one among ethnic Macedonians in Macedonia.

T-L206's sole primary branch, T1a (M70), is believed to have originated about 15,900 – 23,900 BP, in the Middle East. It appears that individuals bearing T-M70 later migrated south to Africa.

Structure

  • T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
    • T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
      • T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
        • T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
          • T1a1a1 (P77) Mostly found in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
          • T1a1a2 (P321) Found in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
            • T1a1a2a (P317) Found in Syria, Italian Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.
      • T1a2 (L131) Mostly found in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
        • T1a2a (P322, P328) Found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
        • T1a2b (L446) Found in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
      • T1a3 (L1255) Found in Kuwait.

Subclade distribution

T1* (T-L206*)

This lineage could have arrived in the Levant through the PPNB expansion from northeastern Anatolia.

T1a (M70)

Mendez et al. (2011) points to an ancient presence for T1a-M70 in Europe may reflect early exiles between the ancient lands of Israel and Babylon. The subclade probably arrived with the very first farmers. This is supported by the recent findings of Haak et al. who discovered several T1a1-CTS880 members in a 7000 years old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany. Autosomal analysis of these skeletal remains show an unusual relationship with modern Southwest Asian populations, reaching close to 10%.

The T1a1 skeletal remains from this settlement were also found to belong to the H mtdna haplogroup, this settlement have the highest frequency of this mtDNA haplogroup 30.4% (7/23) that have been found in any early Neolithic Europe population until now.

T1a1 (L162; xL208)

T1a1 formed 17,400-14,600 BP, is the largest lineage downstream from T1a-M70 and became widespread across Eurasia and Africa before the modern era.

This extremely rare subclade has been found in Ibizan (Eivissan) islanders and Pontic Greeks from Giresun. The first Y-STR haplotype belonging to this lineage appeared in the paper of Tomas et al in 2006 among a sample of Eivissan individuals but is not until August 2009 when the first T1a1-L162(xL208) individual was reported in a 23andMe customer of Pontic Greek background and Metaxopoulos surname, thanks to the public Adriano Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project.

Pontic Greeks from Giresun descend from Sinope colonists and Sinope was colonised by Ionians from Miletus. Is interesting to note that there exist an Ionian colony known as Pityussa just like the known Greek name for Eivissa Pityuses. In Eivissa, where is found the famous bust of Demeter that have been confused with the punic Tanit for decades, is known the cult to Demeter. The bust belonging to Demeter have been analysed and is found to contains black particles of volcanic sand origin from the Etna, is thought to be made in Sicily with red clays typical of the eastern Trinacria, which was colonized by the Ionians. The Ionians could be arrived to Eivissa c.2700 YBP. This lineage could be an Ionian marker. T1a1 formed 17,400-14,600 BP, is the largest lineage downstream from T1a-M70 and became widespread across Eurasia and Africa before the modern era.

This extremely rare subclade has been found in Ibizan (Eivissan) islanders and Pontic Greeks from Giresun. The first Y-STR haplotype belonging to this lineage appeared in the paper of Tomas et al in 2006 among a sample of Eivissan individuals but is not until August 2009 when the first T1a1-L162(xL208) individual was reported in a 23andMe customer of Pontic Greek background and Metaxopoulos surname, thanks to the public Adriano Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project.

Pontic Greeks from Giresun descend from Sinope colonists and Sinope was colonised by Ionians from Miletus. Is interesting to note that there exist an Ionian colony known as Pityussa just like the known Greek name for Eivissa Pityuses. In Eivissa, where is found the famous bust of Demeter that have been confused with the punic Tanit for decades, is known the cult to Demeter. The bust belonging to Demeter have been analysed and is found to contains black particles of volcanic sand origin from the Etna, is thought to be made in Sicily with red clays typical of the eastern Trinacria, which was colonized by the Ionians. The Ionians could be arrived to Eivissa c.2700 YBP. This lineage could be an Ionian marker.

T1a1a (L208)

This lineage, formed 14,200-11,000 BP, is the largest branch downstream T1a1-L162. Firstly discovered and reported at August 2009 in a 23andMe customer of Iberian ancestry that participated in the public Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project and appearing there as "Avilés" and as "AlpAstur" in 23andMe. Named as "L208" at November 2009.

Thomas Jefferson

Phylogenetic network analysis of its Y-STR (short tandem repeat) haplotype shows that it is most closely related to an Egyptian K2 [now T/K1a] haplotype, but the presence of scattered and diverse European haplotypes within the network is nonetheless consistent with Jefferson's patrilineage belonging to an ancient and rare indigenous European type. This is supported by the observation that two of 85 unrelated British men sharing the surname Jefferson also share the President's Y-STR haplotype within haplogroup K2. Turi E. King et al.,

A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is the third US President, Thomas Jefferson. He reportedly belongs to a subclade of T-M184 which is most commonly found in both the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Spain) and Egypt. His most distant known ancestor is Samuel Jeffreason  [sic], born 11 October 1607 at Pettistree, Suffolk, England, although there is also a widespread belief that the President had Welsh ancestry. While all subclades of T-M184 are rare in Britain, some British males with the surname Jefferson have also reportedly been found to carry T-M184, reinforcing the idea that Thomas Jefferson's immediate paternal ancestry was British and may originate in Sephardic (Spanish) Jewish populations, who have their ultimate origins in the Middle East. Science Daily.

There was controversy for almost two centuries regarding allegations that Thomas Jefferson had fathered the children of his slave Sally Hemings. An oral tradition in the Hemings family and other historical evidence was countered in the early 19th century by some Jefferson's grandchildren, who asserted that a son of Thomas Jefferson's sister, by the name of Carr, had been the father of Hemings' children. However, a 1998 study of Jefferson male-line DNA found that it matched that of a descendant of Sally Hemings' youngest son, Eston Hemings. Most historians now believe that Jefferson had a relationship with Hemings for 38 years, and probably fathered her six known children, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line.

Thomas Jefferson

Spencer Wells, the geneticist that heads the Genographic Project in search of the scientific "Adam"In the film, Spencer Wells indicated that Thomas Jefferson's Y-Chromosome was "Phoenician",

Read more: http://phoenicia.org/jefferson.html#ixzz4TYNwmee2 and the National Geographic study "Who were the Phoenicians," revealed that Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States belonged to Y-chromosome Haplogroup K2. The quote from Wells that follows is the scientific explanation of what was discovered in studying Jefferson's DNA.

video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rpibDIWKF5k

S. Wells, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/06/0624_050624_spencerwells.html


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