Teresh (Tw-ry-s')

The Teresh or Tursha are mentioned during the fifth year of Merneptah reign, (about 1207 BC), in the Great Karnak Inscription, between the enemies coalition faced by Egypt. In this document a total of 742 dead Teresh are accounted. During the reign of Ramesses III a Teresh chief is shown together other captive Sea Peoples in the Medinet Habu relief. Furthermore in the tomb 23 from Gurob the Archaeologist W. Flinders Petrie found the mummy of An-en-Tursha. He was a Teresh butler in the court of Rameses III. This well preserved mummy still shows fair hairs thus his origins was not from Egypt.

Several possibilities exist which may identify the Teresh as Anatolians. Teresh appears in a Hittite record as Taruisa. It is reasonable assumption that the people of Taruisa called themselves by some name close to this. Stripped of vowels so that it can be compared to the stripped Egyptian spelling.

The second possibility is relevant to the Tyrsenians a group of pirates with well decked ships mentioned in two works of about 700 BC in a poem known as Hymn to Dionysus, which tradition attributes to Homer. During the classical period Herodotus and Thucydides mention them under the name Tyrrhenians. Herodotus places these peoples in Lydia. Thucydides remarks that they were known to live on the island of Lesbos, offshore from Lydia. Lydia is the Classical period name for the land which in the Bronze Age was Arzawa, and possibly part of Seha River Land an area located in the near south of Taruisa. Some scholars suggested that the Tyrsenians may be related to the Etruscans in fact the Tyrhennian Sea - derived from a Greek term - still survives as a name for the waters between Tuscany and Corsica.

The third possibility shifts the geographic focus to the southeast coast of Anatolia. In a Hittite record containing a list of cities the names Kummanni, Zunnahara, Adaniya, Tarsa... appear together. These last two are more likely the cities of Adana and Tarsus, and thus is certain that the city of Tarsus was in existence in the Bronze Age. If the Egyptians were to ask a man of Tarsus where he came from, he might point in northerly direction and answer "from Tarsa" or "Tarsha" or "Tarssas" This answer would be written down by Egyptians as T-r-s or T-r-sh. Tarsus is close to the coast, and in later times an important port.


The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek: Τυρρηνοί Turrhēnoi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic: Τυρσηνοί Tursēnoi; Doric: Τυρσανοί Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people.

While ancient sources have been interpreted in a variety of ways, one theory identifies the Tyrsenians with the Etruscan, Raeti, and Lemnian cultures, whose languages have been grouped together as the Tyrsenian languages based on strong similarities in their written languages.

Lemnos stele, Lemnian (Etruscan) inscriptions discovered in a crypt

Later, in the 6th to 5th centuries BC, the name referred specifically to the Etruscans, for whom the Tyrrhenian Sea is named, according to Strabo. In Pindar, the Tyrsanoi appear grouped with the Carthaginians as a threat to Magna Graecia:

I entreat you, son of Cronus, grant that the battle-shouts of the Carthaginians and Etruscans stay quietly at home, now that they have seen their arrogance bring lamentation to their ships off Cumae.

The name is also attested in a fragment by Sophocles.

The name becomes increasingly associated with the generic Pelasgians. Herodotus places them in Crestonia in Thrace, as neighbours of the Pelasgians. Similarly, Thucydides mentions them together with the Pelasgians and associates them with Lemnian pirates and with the pre-Greek population of Attica.

Lemnos remained relatively free of Greek influence up to Hellenistic times, and the Lemnos stele of the 6th century BC is inscribed with a language very similar to Etruscan. This has led to the postulation of a "Tyrrhenian language group" comprising Etruscan, Lemnian and Raetic.

Another hypothesis connecting the Tyrrhenians and the Etruscans posits that the Etruscans derive at least partially from a 12th-century BC invasion from the Aegean and Anatolia imposing itself over the Italic Villanovan culture, with some scholars claiming a relationship or at least evidence of close contact between the Anatolian languages and the Etruscan language. Adherents of this latter school of thought point to the legend of Lydian origin of the Etruscans referred to by Herodotus (Histories 1.94) and the statement of Livy that the Raetians were Etruscans driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls.

Glasinc - Tarkvinija


Tyrsenian languages

A larger Aegean family including Eteocretan, Minoan and Eteocypriot has been proposed by G. M. Facchetti, and is supported by S. Yatsemirsky, referring to some alleged similarities between on the one hand Etruscan and Lemnian (a language attested in the Aegean, widely thought to be related to Etruscan), and on the other hand some languages such as Minoan and Eteocretan. If these languages could be shown to be related to Etruscan and Rhaetic, they would constitute a pre-Indo-European family stretching from (at the very least) the Aegean islands and Crete across mainland Greece and the Italian peninsula to the Alps. Facchetti proposes a hypothetical language family derived from Minoan in two branches. From Minoan he proposes a Proto-Tyrrhenian from which would have come the Etruscan, Lemnian and Rhaetic languages. James Mellaart has proposed that this language family is related to the pre-Indo-European Anatolian languages, based upon place name analysis. From another Minoan branch would have come the Eteocretan language.

Tyrant Turan Tirana

Tyrsenian languages


Tartessos - Tarsus

Tartessos (Greek: Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC. Herodotus, for example, describes it as beyond the Pillars of Heracles (Strait of Gibraltar).

September 1923 archaeologists discovered a Phoenician necropolis in which human remains were unearthed and stones found with illegible characters. It may have been colonized by the Phoenicians for trade because of its richness in metals.

Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilisations.



Phoenician Trade


Herodot - Strabo

Herodotus's account (written c. 440 BC) refers to the myths of Io and Europa.

According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. These people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria ... - Herodotus, The History, I.1

The Greek historian Strabo believed that the Phoenicians originated from Bahrain. Herodotus also believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain. This theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: "In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, and Aradus, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, and exhibited relics of Phoenician temples." The people of Tyre in South Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, and the similarity in the words "Tylos" and "Tyre" has been commented upon. The Dilmun civilization thrived in Bahrain during the period 2200-1600 BC, as shown by excavations of settlements and Dilmun burial mounds.

Canaanite culture

Canaanite culture apparently developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture. Ghassulian itself developed from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of their ancestral Natufian and Harifian cultures with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) farming cultures, practicing the domestication of animals, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis which led to the Neolithic Revolution in the Levant. Byblos is attested as an archaeological site from the Early Bronze Age. The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, even though the Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite languages proper.

Preceded by: Tyrrhenians = Dilmun civilization



Tire što govoraše: Ja sam lađa prekrasna, izvanredne ljepote. Tvoje međe sežu u more duboko, graditelji tvoji besprimjerno te lijepa načiniše. Od senirskih čempresa oplate ti sagradiše, cedar libanonski uzeše, jarbole ti podigoše; od bašanskih hrastova istesaše ti vesla, od bjelokosti i šimšira s kitijimskog otočja palubu ti načiniše! Od vezena lana egipatskog bijahu ti jedra da ti budu zastava! A grimiz i skrlet s eliških otoka staviše ti za krovišta. Žitelji Sidona i Arvada bjehu ti veslači, a mudraci tvoji, Tire, bijahu ti kormilari! Starješine gebalske i vještaci popravljahu kvarove tvoje. Sve morske lađe i mornari bijahu tvoji i s tobom trgovahu! Perzijanci, Ludijci i Putijci u tvojoj vojsci bijahu ratnici, u tebi vješahu štitove i kacige; oni ti sjaj davahu. Sinovi arvadski s vojnicima na bedemima tvojim uokrug čuvahu ti kule. O zidove ti uokolo štitove vješahu da uzveličaju jedinstvenu ljepotu tvoju! Zbog bogatstva tvoga golemog čak i Taršiš s tobom trgovaše, plaćajući srebrom i gvožđem, olovom i kositrom trg tvoj. Javan i Tubal i Mešek s tobom trgovahu: davahu ljude i suđe mjedeno za trg tvoj. Oni iz Bet Togarme davahu konje, trkaće konjiće i mazge. I sinovi Dedanovi s tobom trgovahu. Mnogi ti otoci bijahu podložni: plaćahu ti daću u bjelokosti i ebanovini. Zbog obilja robe tvoje Edom s tobom trgovaše. Davahu ti za trg dragulje, purpur i vezivo, koralje, rubine i bez; i Judeja i zemlja Izraelova trgovahu s tobom: minitskim žitom, voskom, medom, uljem i balzamom trg tvoj plaćahu! Zbog obilja trga tvojeg, silnoga ti blaga, i Damask s tobom trgovaše za helbonsko vino i saharsku vunu. I Dan i Javan iz Uzala za trg tvoj prekaljeno gvožđe mijenjahu, cimet i slatku trsku. Dedan s tobom trgovaše prostirkama jahačkim. Arapi i kedarski knezovi mijenjahu se s tobom, trg ti plaćajući jaganjcima, jarcima i ovnovima. Trgovci iz Šebe i Rame trgovahu s tobom, za trg ti davahu najbolje dragulje i zlato. Haran, Kane i Eden, trgovci Šebe, Asirije i Kišmada trgovahu s tobom. Mijenjahu za trg tvoj skupocjene halje, purpurne i vezene plašteve, sagove šarene i užad čvrsto pletenu. Taršiške su lađe nakrcane prevozile robu tvoju! Bješe tako puna i teška veoma. Na pučinu morsku, na mnoga te mora izvedoše veslači.

Bješe, eto, od Daniela mudriji, nijedna ti tajna ne bje skrivena! Mudrošću svojom i razborom nateče bogatstva, riznicu napuni srebrom i zlatom! Mudar li bijaše trgovac, bogatstvo svoje namnoži! Al' ti se s bogatstva srce uzoholi.'

Gle, ti bješe uzor savršenstva, pun mudrosti i čudesno lijep! U Edenu, vrtu Božjem, ti življaše, resio te dragulj svaki, sard, topaz i dijamant, krizolit, oniks i jaspis, safir, smaragd i zlato. Načinjeni bjehu bubnjevi i frule, na dan ti rođenja bjehu pripravljeni. Postavih te kao raskriljena keruba zaštitnika: bio si na svetoj gori Božjoj, hodio si posred ognjena kamenja. Savršen bješe na putima svojim od dana svojega rođenja dok ti se u srcu ne zače opačina. Obilno trgujući, napuni se nasiljem i sagriješi. Zato te zbacih s gore Božje, istrgoh te, kerube zaštitniče, isred ognjenoga kamenja. Srce ti se uzoholi zbog ljepote tvoje, mudrost svoju odnemari zbog svojega blaga!




The Sumerian tale of the garden paradise of Dilmun may have been an inspiration for the Garden of Eden story.

We suggest;

Garden of Eden = Dilmun

Tyrrhenians = Dilmun civilization