Tjekker (T-k-k(r))

The Greek story of Teucer, one of the heroes of the Trojan War, it is said that Teucer and his men settled Crete and Cyprus and then set out on many voyages that took them through Canaan and Phoenician cities such as Sidon.

Sandars also suggests a connection to the hero Teucer, the traditional founder of Salamis on Cyprus. It is suggested that the Tjekker may have come to Cannan from Troad by way of Cyprus. The archaeological evidence leads to the conclusion that these people were not simply raiders, plundering established cities, but instead a group looking for a place to settle.

The Tjekker people took part in the battle against the Egyptians in year eight of Ramesses III. They, along with the Peleset, were a major group depicted in the reliefs at Medinet Habu, portraying the battle. The Tjekker are also mentioned in the Wen-Amon story of the 11th century BC. The author recalls visiting the city of Dor, which he calls "…a town of the Tjekker…" in Dor, Wen-Amonis forced to deal with Beder, the rular of the city, about gold stolen from his ships. An individual identified as a Tjekker chief is illustrated in a Medinet Habu relief. He is bearded and wears a strange cap which remind even if un-crested some of the late Achaean helmets. The Tjekker warriors fight with short, straight swords, long spears, and rounded shields.

Archaeological evidence from Dor supports Wen-Amon’s claim of Tjekker settlement. Stern’s excavations discovered quantities of Philistine style bi-chrome pottery on the site. In addition, the excavations found cow scapulae and bone-handled iron knives similar to those found at Philistine sites. Stern believes this is evidence of a Tjelkker. The evidence may not prove a massive Sea People settlement, but does prove at least some presence at Dor.


King Teucer

In Greek mythology, King Teucer or Teucrus (Greek: Τεῦκρος) was said to have been the son of the river Scamander and the nymph Idaea. Before the arrival of Dardanus, the land that would eventually be called Dardania (and later still the Troad) was known as Teucria and the inhabitants as Teucrians, after Teucer.

According to Virgil, Teucer was originally from Crete but left the island during a great famine with a third of its inhabitants. They settled near the Scamander river, named after Teucer's father, not far from the Rhaetean promontory. However, Dionysius of Halicarnassus states that Teucer had come to the Troad from Attica where he was a chief of the Xypetȇ region. In both cases he ended up in the region which would be known as the Troad. Teucer is said to had a felicitous reign as he was successful in all of his undertakings. He was said to have been the first to build a temple to Apollo. Batea (also known as Batia or Arisba), King Teucer's daughter and only child, was given in marriage to Dardanus. In Lycophron's Alexandra, Dardanus was said to wed Arisba from “Crete's royal house”. Dardanus received land on Mount Ida from his father-in-law when Teucer died since he did not have a biological son. There Dardanus founded the city of Dardania. After Teucer's death, his kingdom was incorporated in that of Dardanus and the entire region came to be known as Dardania. Yet in later times, the people of Troy often referred to themselves as "Teucrians". For example, Aeneas is called the “great captain of the Teucrians”. In most myths mentioning King Teucer, he is described as being a distant ancestor of the Trojans. Diodorus states that Teucer was “the first to rule as king over the land of Troy” while in the Aeneid, Anchises recalls him being the Trojans' “first forefather”.

 

Apollo - God of the Sun, the Light, the Music and Prophecy


Apollo

Apollo is one of the most complex and important gods, and is the god of many things, including: music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge. He is the son of Zeus and the Titan Leto, and was born in the Greek island of Delos, along with his older twin sister Artemis – goddess of the hunt.

Apollo is the ideal of the kouros, which means he has a beardless, athletic and youthful appearance. He is also an oracular god as a patron of Delphi and could predict prophecy through the Delphic Oracle Pythia.

Both medicine and healing are associated with Apollo and were thought to sometimes be mediated through his son, Asclepius. However, Apollo could also bring ill-health and deadly plague.

Apollo also became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. He was the leader of the Muses (also known as Apollon Musegetes) and was director of their choir – functioning as the patron god of music and poetry.

The god Hermes create the lyre for Apollo and this instrument became a known attribute for him. When hymns were sung to Apollo they were called paeans

At the drinking parties held on Olympus, Apollo accompanied the Muses on his cithara, while the young goddesses led the dance. Both Leto and Zeus were proud of their son, who was radiant with grace and beauty.

Apollo was one of the few gods that the Romans kept the same name.  In Greek mythology, he was most widely known as the god of light. Within Roman mythology, he wasn’t known as much as the god of light and was focused mainly as the god of healing and prophecy.

Facts about Apollo:

  • Apollo was the son of Leto and Zeus. He was born on the island of Delos.
  • He and his twin sister Artemis, also an Olympian, shared an aptitude for archery.
  • His forename, Phoebus, means “bright” or “pure” and connects him to his grandmother, the Titan Phoebe.
  • Apollo, a masterful magician, was known for delighting Olympus with tunes played on his golden lyre. His lyre, a stringed instrument that resembles a small harp, was made by Hermes.
  • The nine Muses were companions of his; they were goddesses known for inspiring art and music.
  • Apollo taught men the art of medicine, so he is often referred to as “The Healer.”
  • Apollo is alternately referred to as the God of Light and the God of Truth.
  • Apollo served as an intermediary between the gods and men.
  • Because of his truthfulness and integrity, he was granted the gift of prophecy and oracles.
  • Apollo defended the oracle at Delphi against Hercules, who was angry at the priestess for having denied him a prophecy.
  • Apollo killed a serpent named Python as a result of a contest; it was conquered by a single arrow.
  • According to Homer’s Illiad, Apollo played a major part in the Trojan War. He infected the Greek encampment with a plague and aided Paris in killing Achilles.
  • Ironically, Apollo was also a purifier, able to cleanse even those stained with the blood of their relatives.
  • The dolphin and swan were the animals sacred to him.
  • The laurel, used in Greece as a status symbol, was Apollo’s tree.
  • Apollo accidentally killed his dearest companion, Hyacinthus, in a discus throwing contest.
  • Apollo is credited with killing the Cyclops in retaliation for arming Zeus with the thunderbolt.
  • He had many love affairs with both mortals and goddesses. Perhaps the most famous of these women was a mortal named Hecuba, who was married to the King of Troy. The union between Apollo and Hecuba produced a son named Troilus.
  • Apollo’s affections were rejected by Cassandra, yet another mortal, so he punished her by arranging it so that her prophecies would never be believed.
  • Asclepius is probably Apollo’s most well-known son, although he had many offspring.

Aplu - Apaliunas - Apollo

Aplu isrelated with Apaliunas who is considered to be the Hittite reflex of *Apeljōn, an early form of the name Apollo.

Hittite Apaliunas (dx-ap-pa-li-u-na-aš) is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter, perhaps related to Hurrian (and certainly the Etruscan) Aplu, a god of plague, in turn likely from Akkadian Aplu Enlil meaning simply "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus ("mouse Apollo") by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is of course apotropaic, meaning that the god responsible for bringing the plague must be appeased in order to remove the plague).

Apaliunas is the name of a god, attested in a Hittite language treaty as a protective deity of Wilusa. Apaliunas is considered to be the Hittite reflex of *Apeljōn, an early form of the name Apollo, which may also be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric Ἀπέλλων.

 

Artemis - Goddess of the Hunt, Forests and Hills, the Moon, Archery


Artemis

Artemis is known as the goddess of the hunt and is one of the most respected of all the ancient Greek deities. It is thought that her name, and even the goddess herself, may even be pre-Greek. She was the daughter of Zeus, king of the gods, and the Titaness Leto and she has a twin brother, the god Apollo.

Not only was Artemis the goddess of the hunt, she was also known as the goddess of wild animals, wilderness, childbirth and virginity. Also, she was protector of young children and was know to bring and relieve disease in women. In literature and art she was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrow.

Artemis was a virgin and drew the attention and interest of many gods and men. However, it was only her hunting companion, Orion, that won her heart. It is believed that Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis herself or by Gaia, the primordial goddess of the earth.

In one version of the stories of Adonis – who was a late addition to Greek mythology during the Hellenistic period – Artemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis after he continued to boast that he was a far greater hunter than her.

Facts about Artemis:

  • Artemis was daughter of Zeus and Leto and twin sister of Apollo.
  • According to one source, Artemis was born a day before Apollo. She then served as a guardian to him, which provided a context for her desire to protect and nurture.
  • She was primarily a virgin huntress, goddess of wildlife and patroness of hunters.
  • The bear was sacred to her.
  • She guarded her virginity carefully. Actaeon and Orion tried to dishonor or rape her, but anyone who threatened her purity met with a violent end.
  • She was an important goddess in the lives of women, especially when it came to marriage and young creatures.
  • When one of her nymphs was seduced by Zeus, Artemis transformed her into a bear and then killed her.
  • She was sometimes associated with the goddess of the moon.
  • Artemis acted out in anger whenever her wishes were disobeyed, especially if anyone transgressed against the animals that were sacred to her.
  • She punished Agamemnon, for example, when he killed a stag in her sacred grove.
  • Artemis appealed to Zeus to grant her eternal virginity.
  • Apollo and Artemis teamed up to kill the children of Niobe. Niobe bragged that she had birthed more children than Leto (the mother of Apollo and Artemis). The twins then hunted her children and killed them with their bows and arrows.
  • Artemis was worshipped widely in Greece but only as a secondary deity.
  • A temple built in her honor became one of the “Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.”
  • At least two festivals were celebrated in her honor of Artemis: Brauronia and the festival of Artemis Orthia.
  • Homer referred to her as a mistress of wild animals.
  • Artemis spent most of her time roaming the forests with her nymphs. She was described as both hunting animals and protecting them.
  • She armed herself with a bow and arrows made by Hephaestus and Cyclops.
  • In art, Artemis is often accompanied by a stag or hunting dog.
  • She is the protector of chastity and a nurturer of the young.

 

Tethys

M. L. West detects in the Iliad's Deception of Zeus passage an allusion to a possible archaic myth "according to which [Tethys] was the mother of the gods, long estranged from her husband," speculating that the estrangement might refer to a separation of "the upper and lower waters ... corresponding to that of heaven and earth", which would parallel the story of "Apsū and Tiamat in the Babylonian cosmology, the male and female waters which were originally united (En. El. I. 1 ff.)", but that "by Hesiod's time the myth may have been almost forgotten, and Tethys remembered only as the name of Oceanus' wife." This possible correspondence between Oceanus and Tethys, and Apsū and Tiamat, has been noticed by several authors, with Tethys' name possibly having been derived from that of Tiamat. - Tethys kao Tiamat

 

Trojans family tree

 
 
 
 
 
 
Oceanus
 
Tethys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atlas
 
Pleione
 
Scamander
 
Idaea
 
Simoeis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zeus/Jupiter
 
Electra
 
 
Teucer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dardanus
 
 
 
 
Batea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Idaea
 
Ilus
 
Erichthonius
 
Astyoche
 
Hieromneme
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Callirrhoe
 
 
 
 
 
Tros
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ilus
 
 
 
Assaracus
 
 
 
 
Ganymede
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laomedon
 
Themiste
 
Capys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Priam
 
 
 
Anchises
 
Aphrodite/Venus
 
Latinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Creusa
 
 
 
 
 
Aeneas
 
 
 
Lavinia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ascanius
 
 
 
 
 
Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Silvius
 
 
 
Aeneas Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brutus of Britain
 
 
Latinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alba
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capetus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tiberinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agrippa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Romulus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aventinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Procas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numitor
 
Amulius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rhea Silvia
 
Ares/Mars
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hersilia
 
Romulus
 
Remus
 

Trojans Origins

Preceded by: Hyksos > Nippur Enlil City Akkad

Akkadian Empire

Followed by: Hyksos > Teucrians & Sherden