Upper & Lower Egypt

During the Paleolithic period, the Nile Valley was inhabited by various hunter-gatherer populations. Around 10,000 years ago, the Sahara had a wet phase, the Neolithic Subpluvial (Holocene Wet Phase). People from the surrounding areas moved into the Sahara, and evidence suggests that the populations of the Nile Valley reduced in size.

Around 5,000 years ago, the wet phase of the Sahara came to an end. The Saharan populations retreated to the south towards the Sahel, and east in the direction of the Nile Valley. It was these populations, in addition to Neolithic farmers from the Near East, that played a major role in the formation of the Egyptian state as they brought their food crops, sheep, goats and cattle to the Nile Valley.

Around 5,000 years ago, the wet phase of the Sahara came to an end. The Saharan populations retreated to the south towards the Sahel, and east in the direction of the Nile Valley. It was these populations, in addition to Neolithic farmers from the Near East, that played a major role in the formation of the Egyptian state as they brought their food crops, sheep, goats and cattle to the Nile Valley.

Prehistoric Egypt (also known as "Predynastic Egypt") dates to the end of the fourth millennium BCE. From around 4800 to 4300 BCE, the Merimde culture (Merimde Beni-Salame) flourished in Lower Egypt. This culture, among others, has links to the Levant. The pottery of the Buto Maadi culture, best known from the site at Maadi near Cairo, also shows connections with the southern Levant. In Upper Egypt, the predynastic Badari culture was followed by the Naqada culture (Amratian).

Located in the extreme north-east corner of Africa, Ancient Egyptian society was at a crossroads between the African and Near Eastern regions. Early proponents of the dynastic race theory based this on the increased novelty and seemingly rapid change in Predynastic pottery and noted trade contacts between ancient Egypt and the Middle East. This is no longer the dominant view in Egyptology; however, the evidence on which it was based still suggests influence from these regions. Fekri Hassan and Edwin et al. point to mutual influence from both inner Africa as well as the Levant. This evidence suggests that Ancient Egypt was populated by Afro-Asiatic-speaking peoples from Northeast Africa and the Near East. - Population history of Egypt


Afroasiatic languages

(Hamito-Semitic languages)

Afroasiatic languages

Date of Afroasiatic

The earliest written evidence of an Afroasiatic language is an Ancient Egyptian inscription dated c. 3400 BC (5,400 years ago). Symbols on Gerzean pottery resembling Egyptian hieroglyphs date back to c. 4000 BC, suggesting a still earlier possible date. This gives us a minimum date for the age of Afroasiatic.

Levant theory

Militarev, who linked proto-Afroasiatic to the Levantine Natufian culture, that preceded the spread of farming technology, believes the language family to be about 10,000 years old. He wrote (Militarev 2002, p. 135) that the "Proto-Afrasian language, on the verge of a split into daughter languages", meaning, in his scenario, into "Cushitic, Omotic, Egyptian, Semitic and Chadic-Berber", "should be roughly dated to the ninth millennium BC".

Neolithic Lower Egypt, c. 6000

Faiyum A culture

The period from 9000 to 6000 BC has left very little in the way of archaeological evidence. Around 6000 BC, Neolithic settlements appear all over Egypt. Studies based on morphological, genetic, and archaeological data have attributed these settlements to migrants from the Fertile Crescent in the Near East returning during the Egyptian and North African Neolithic, bringing agriculture to the region. However, other regions in Africa independently developed agriculture at about the same time: the Ethiopian highlands, the Sahel, and West Africa.

Some morphological and post-cranial data has linked the earliest farming populations at Fayum, Merimde, and El-Badari, to Near Eastern populations. However, the archaeological data also suggests that Near Eastern domesticates were incorporated into a pre-existing foraging strategy and only slowly developed into a full-blown lifestyle, contrary to what would be expected from settler colonists from the Near East. Finally, the names for the Near Eastern domesticates imported into Egypt were not Sumerian or Proto-Semitic loan words, which further diminishes the likelihood of a mass immigrant colonization of lower Egypt during the transition to agriculture. Faiyum A culture



We suggest; Y-DNA I2a


Khemenu (Ḫmnw), the Ancient Egyptian name of the city, means "eight-town", after the Ogdoad, a group of eight deities who represented the world before creation. The name survived into Coptic as (Shmounein), from which the modern name, El Ashmunein, is derived. In Greek, the city was called Hermopolis, after Hermes, whom the Greeks identified with Thoth, because the city was the main cult centre of Thoth, the god of magic, healing and wisdom, and the patron of scribes. Thoth was associated in the same way with the Semitic Eshmun. Inscriptions at the temple call the god "The Lord of Eshmun".- Hermopolis


Lower Egypt, c. 3600 - 3000 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA E-M78, I2, I2a & T1a

Lower Egypt



We suggest; Y-DNA T1a

In ancient Egypt, Heliopolis was a regional center from predynastic times.

It was principally notable as the cult center of the sun god Atum, who came to be identified with Ra and then Horus. The primary temple of the city was known as the Great House (Egyptian: Per Aat, *Par ʻĀʼat) or House of Atum (Pr I͗tmw or Per Atum, *Par-ʼAtāma; Hebrew: פתם‎‎, Pithom). - Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)

Badari culture, c. 4400 - 4000 BC



Naqada culture, c. 4400 - 3000 BC

Naqada culture

Pre-dynastic Naqada cooking pot.

Incised hippopotamus ivory tusk, upper canine.

Female figure with bird traits. Naqada II period, 3500-3400 BE.

Lapis Lazuli - Afganistan - Y-DNA T1a

Followed by A-Group culture 3800 - 3100 BC, C-Group culture 2400 - 1550 BC, Kerma Culture 2500 - 1500 BC

  • Preceded by; Old Europe


Kerma Culture, c. 2500 - 1500 BC

Painting of an ancient Libyan or Kushite woman and infant being led by an Egyptian superintendent; from the east wall of the tomb BH14 of nomarch Khnumhotep I at Beni Hasan. Reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat I, early 12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom.

Neolithic Nubia

Megalithic builders

Nabta Playa

By the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to be suggestive of a cattle cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa and the Nile Valley even to this day. Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems to be one of the world's first astronomical devices. This complexity as observed at Nabta Playa, and as expressed by different levels of authority within the society there, likely formed the basis for the structure of both the Neolithic society at Nabta and the Old Kingdom of Egypt. - Nabta Playa


A-Group culture, c. 3800 - 3100 BC

Nubian Terracotta Female Figurine, c. 3500-3100 BC

Around 3500 BC, the second "Nubian" culture, termed the A-Group, arose. It was a contemporary of, and ethnically and culturally very similar to, the polities in predynastic Naqada of Upper Egypt. The A-Group people were engaged in trade with the Egyptians. This trade is testified archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the graves of the A-Group people. The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, seals, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots. Around 3300 BC, there is evidence of a unified kingdom, as shown by the finds at Qustul, that maintained substantial interactions (both cultural and genetic) with the culture of Naqadan Upper Egypt. The Nubian culture may have even contributed to the unification of the Nile Valley. - A-Group culture

Back to Africa,  c. 3100 BC

Y-chromosome J1 & R1b

Haplogroup J1 - Haplogroup R1b

R1b1a2-V88, može se naći širom Europe u izuzetno malom postotku, s tim da je nešto značajnije zastupljena u južnoj Europi, prije svega na Apeninskom i Iberijskom poluotoku. Nešto značajniji postotak (do 4%) ova grana bilježi na Levantu, među Libancima, Druzima i Židovima, a najveće frekvencije dostiže među pojedinim narodima severne Afrike, sudanskim Koptima (15%), Berberima iz granične regije Egipta i Libije (23%), Hausa narodom iz Sudana (40%), Fulani narodima Nigera i Kameruna (54%), dok kod nekih čadskih plemena sjevernog Kameruna i Nigerije dostiže i nevjerovatnih 95%. Gotovo svi pripadnici grane V88 u Africi i Bliskom Istoku pripadaju podgrani Y7771, i visoki postotak među navedenim afrčkim narodima posljedica su naglog demografskog širenja ove podgrane u poslednjih 5000 godina. Grana V88 je među drevnim uzorcima do sada pronađena kod jednog mezolitskog lovca-sakupljača iz Ukrajine, i kod jednog neolitskog zemljoradnika iz Španije.

Dynastic race

First Dynasty of Egypt, c. 3100 - 2900 BC

The Narmer Palette, thought to mark the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Arrowheads from Narmer’s tomb, Petrie 1905, Royal Tombs II, pl. IV.14 .

By about 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. The Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles-including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect-became popular during this time.

Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process. Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt under his single rule.

According to Manetho, the first monarch of the unified Upper and Lower Egypt was Menes, who is now identified with Narmer. Indeed, Narmer is the earliest recorded First Dynasty monarch: he appears first on the king lists of Den and Qa'a. This shows that Narmer was recognized by the first dynasty kings as an important founding figure. Narmer is also the earliest king associated to the symbols of power over the two lands (see in particular the Narmer Palette, a votive cosmetic palette showing Narmer wearing the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt) and may therefore be the first king to achieve the unification. Consequently, the current consensus is that "Menes" and "Narmer" refer to the same person. Alternative theories hold that Narmer was the final king of the Naqada III period and Hor-Aha is to be identified with "Menes". - Narmer - Menes - First Dynasty of Egypt - Dynastic race theory

Copts - Ptah

Today 15% of the Sudanese Copts are R1b V88.

  • Preceded by:Yamna/Maykop culture

  • Y-DNA R1b1a2 (R-V88)



We suggest; Y-DNA R1b1a2

Capital Thinis then Memphis. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. - Memphis

Sky Father - Ptah

The supreme ruler of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon was the god *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr, whose name literally means "Sky Father". He is believed to have been worshipped as the god of the daylit skies. He is, by far, the most well-attested of all the Proto-Indo-European deities. The Greek god Zeus, the Roman god Jupiter, and the Illyrian god Dei-Pátrous all appear as the head gods of their respective pantheons. The Norse god Týr, however, seems to have been demoted to the role of a minor war-deity during the time prior to the earliest Germanic texts. *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr is also attested in the Rigveda as Dyáus Pitā, a minor ancestor figure mentioned in only a few hymns. The names of the Latvian god Dievs and the Hittite god Attas Isanus do not preserve the exact literal translation of the name *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr, but do preserve the general meaning of it.

*Dyḗus Pḥatḗr may have had a consort who was an earth goddess. This possibility is attested in the Vedic pairing of Dyáus Pitā and Prithvi Mater, the Roman pairing of Jupiter and Tellus Mater from Macrobius's Saturnalia, and the Norse pairing of Odin and Jörð. Odin is not a reflex of *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr, but his cult may have subsumed aspects of an earlier chief deity who was. This pairing may also be further attested in an Old English ploughing prayer and in the Greek pairings of Ouranos and Gaia and Zeus and Demeter.

Ptah - Pitaḥ - PT-Ah - Phater Yah

Novelties in Egypt

  • Warfare/weapon
  • Slavery/mace
  • Human sacrifice

Mace - Buzdovan

In ancient Ukraine, stone mace heads were first used nearly eight millennia ago. The others known were disc maces with oddly formed stones mounted perpendicularly to their handle. The Narmer Palette shows a king swinging a mace. See the articles on the Narmer Macehead and the Scorpion Macehead for examples of decorated maces inscribed with the names of kings.



Since the rise of the state some 5,000 years ago, military activity has occurred over much of the globe.


Human sacrifice

Ancient Egypt (dynasti)

There may be evidence of retainer sacrifice in the early dynastic period at Abydos, when on the death of a King he would be accompanied with servants, and possibly high officials, who would continue to serve him in eternal life. The skeletons that were found had no obvious signs of trauma, leading to speculation that the giving up of life to serve the King may have been a voluntary act, possibly carried out in a drug induced state.

Retainer sacrifice was abandoned almost immediately after the end of the First Dynasty. - Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrifices

In Greek mythology Minos was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa. Every nine years, he made King Aegeus pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to Daedalus's creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by the Minotaur. After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in the underworld.

Some scholars see a connection between Minos and the names of other ancient founder-kings, such as Menes of Egypt,

Mesopotamia (dynasti)

Retainer sacrifice was practised within the royal tombs of ancient Mesopotamia. Courtiers, guards, musicians, handmaidens and grooms were presumed to committed ritual suicide by taking poison. A new examination of skulls from the royal cemetery at Ur, discovered in Iraq almost a century ago, appears to support a more grisly interpretation of human sacrifices associated with elite burials in ancient Mesopotamia than had previously been recognized, say archaeologists. Palace attendants, as part of royal mortuary ritual, were not dosed with poison to meet death serenely. Instead, they were put to death by having a sharp instrument, such as a pike, driven into their heads.

Neolithic Europe ((Dnieper-Donets culture)

There is archaeological evidence of human sacrifice in Neolithic to Eneolithic Europe. Retainer sacrifices seem to have been common in early Indo-European religion. For example, the Luhansk sacrificial site shows evidence of human sacrifice in the Yamna culture.


According to Roman sources, Celtic Druids engaged extensively in human sacrifice. According to Julius Caesar, the slaves and dependents of Gauls of rank would be burnt along with the body of their master as part of his funerary rites. He also describes how they built wicker figures that were filled with living humans and then burned. According to Cassius Dio, Boudica's forces impaled Roman captives during her rebellion against the Roman occupation, to the accompaniment of revelry and sacrifices in the sacred groves of Andate. Different gods reportedly required different kinds of sacrifices. Victims meant for Esus were hanged Tollund Man, those meant for Taranis immolated and those for Teutates drowned. Some, like the Lindow Man, may have gone to their deaths willingly.

Archaeological evidence from the British Isles seems to indicate that human sacrifice may have been practised, over times long pre-dating any contact with Rome. Human remains have been found at the foundations of structures from the Neolithic time to the Roman era, with injuries and in positions that argue for their being foundation sacrifices.

On the other hand, ritualised decapitation was a major religious and cultural practice which has found copious support in the archaeological record, including the numerous skulls discovered in Londinium's River Walbrook and the 12 headless corpses at the French late Iron Age sanctuary of Gournay-sur-Aronde. - Wicker man

Slavic peoples

In the 10th century, Persian explorer Ahmad ibn Rustah described funerary rites for the Rus' (Scandinavian Norsemen traders in northeastern Europe) including the sacrifice of a young female slave. Leo the Deacon describes prisoner sacrifice by the Rus' led by Sviatoslav during the Russo-Byzantine War "in accordance with their ancestral custom."

According to the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, prisoners of war were sacrificed to the supreme Slavic deity Perun. Sacrifices to pagan gods, along with paganism itself, were banned after the Baptism of Rus' by Prince Vladimir I in the 980s.

Archeological findings indicate that the practice may have been widespread, at least among slaves, judging from mass graves containing the cremated fragments of a number of different people.

Human sacrifice

Y-chromosome J1


Y-chromosome J


Kushite - Nubians (Hamites)

Red & black Nubians

  • We suggest; Y-DNA E-M78 & J1



We suggest; Y-DNA J1

Thebes was inhabited from around 3200 BC. It was the eponymous capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. At this time it was still a small trading post while Memphis served as the royal residence of Old Kingdom pharaohs. - Thebes

Lend of Punt

Ancient traders

Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt

Haplogroup T


  • We suggest; Y-DNA E-M78 & T1a


Ancient Maritime & International Trade

We suggest; Y-DNA T1a

Silk route

Maritime timeline

  • About 6,000 BC: earliest evidence of dugout canoes
  • 5th millennium BC: earliest known depiction of a sailing boat
  • About 2,000 BC: Hannu dispatches a fleet to the Land of Punt
  • About 2,000 BC: Austronesian people migrate from Taiwan to Indonesia, preceding the colonization of Polynesia
  • 1575-1520 BC: Dover Bronze Age Boat, oldest known plank vessel, was built
  • about 1175 BC: Battle of the Delta, one of the first recorded naval battles
  • 1194-1174 BC: supposed timespan for the events of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.
  • Around 600 BC: according to Herodotus, Necho II sends Phoenician expedition to circumnavigate Africa
  • 542 BC: first written record of a trireme
  • 5th century BC: Hanno the Navigator explores the coast of West Africa
  • 480 BC: Battle of Salamis, arguably the largest naval battle in ancient times
  • 247 BC: Lighthouse of Alexandria completed
  • 214 BC: Lingqu Canal built
  • 31 BC: Battle of Actium decides the Final War of the Roman Republic
  • About 200: Junks are developed in China

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