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Upper & Lower Egypt

Upper & Lower Egypt

Back to Africa,  c. 3100 BC

Y-chromosome J1 & R1b

Haplogroup J1 - Haplogroup R1b

R1b1a2-V88, može se naći širom Europe u izuzetno malom postotku, s tim da je nešto značajnije zastupljena u južnoj Europi, prije svega na Apeninskom i Iberijskom poluotoku. Nešto značajniji postotak (do 4%) ova grana bilježi na Levantu, među Libancima, Druzima i Židovima, a najveće frekvencije dostiže među pojedinim narodima severne Afrike, sudanskim Koptima (15%), Berberima iz granične regije Egipta i Libije (23%), Hausa narodom iz Sudana (40%), Fulani narodima Nigera i Kameruna (54%), dok kod nekih čadskih plemena sjevernog Kameruna i Nigerije dostiže i nevjerovatnih 95%. Gotovo svi pripadnici grane V88 u Africi i Bliskom Istoku pripadaju podgrani Y7771, i visoki postotak među navedenim afrčkim narodima posljedica su naglog demografskog širenja ove podgrane u poslednjih 5000 godina. Grana V88 je među drevnim uzorcima do sada pronađena kod jednog mezolitskog lovca-sakupljača iz Ukrajine, i kod jednog neolitskog zemljoradnika iz Španije.

Kura-Araxes culture, c. 3400 - 2000 BC

DNA J1 & R1b - Early Bronze Ages

Kura–Araxes culture

We suggest;

Kura-Araxes culture (Early Bronze Ages) Y-DNA J1 & R1b

Preceded by; Yamna/Maykop culture



Medzamor' - Black swamp' or 'Black quicksand'

Excavations began at Metsamor in 1965 and are still in progress, led by Professor Emma Khanzatian.  The most recent excavation work occurred in the summer of 1996, along the inner cyclopic wall.  Excavations have shown strata of occupancy going back to the Neolithic period (7,000-5,000 BC), but the most outstanding features of the site were constructed during the early, middle and late Bronze Ages (5000-2,000 BC).  Inscriptions found within the excavation go back as far as the Neolithic period , and a sophisticated pictograph form of writing was developed as early as 2000-1800 BC. (1)


The excavation has uncovered a large metal industry, including a foundry with 2 kinds of blast furnaces (brick and in-ground).  Metal processing at Metsamor was among the most sophisticated of its kind at that time:  the foundry extracted and processed high-grade gold, copper, several types of bronze, manganese, zinc, strychnine, mercury and iron. Metsamor’s processed metal was coveted by all nearby cultures, and found its way to Egypt, Central Asia and China.  The iron smelting process was not advanced in Metsamor, probably due to the vast quantities of pure bronze alloys at hand, and Metsamor primarily mined and sold iron ore to neighbouring cultures which took better advantage of its properties. 

The Foundry

The foundry dates from the Early Bronze Age (ca. 4,000 BC) though recent digs in the area uncovered signs of metal processing as early as 5,000 BC.  The complex of smelting furnaces and moulds date from the mid Bronze to Early Iron Age (3,000-2,000 BC).  The complex becomes more astounding the more you walk through it.  Several huge underground caves were uncovered that are thought to have been storehouses for base metal, as well as a granaries for winter months.  Stretching just below and around the Upper Citadel, the foundries processed Copper, Bronze, Iron, Mercury, Manganese, Strychnine, Zinc and gold.  The first iron in the ancient world was probably forged here, though it was not considered as important as bronze, giving the jump on development to the Babylonians.

Copper smelter

Funerary remains

The discovery of thousands of people buried in simple graves and large burial mounds revealed a history of Metsamor’s burial rituals and a concern for hiding wealthy tombs.  Like the Pharaohs buried in the Valley of the Kings, Metsamor’s rulers tried to thwart grave robbers by hiding  the locations of royal tombs.  Fortunately the grave robbers at Metsamor were not as lucky as those in Egypt, and the Mausoleums revealed intact and richly adorned burial vaults, giving us an excellent glimpse into the traditions for preparing the body for the afterlife.

Among the artefacts uncovered in the royal tombs were evidences of great wealth; Gold, silver and bronze jewellery and adornments were found over and next to the body, which was placed in a sitting foetal position in a large stone sarcophagus (early Metsamor) or lying in a casket (late Metsamor).  The bodies were laid out with their feet oriented towards the East, so they could greet the sun and follow it to the afterlife in the West.  Included in the vaults were the skeletal remains of horses, cattle, domesticated dogs and humans, presumed to be servants or slaves to the deceased.  The sacrifice of slaves and animals was a common feature of burial rituals during the Bronze and Early Iron Age, as they were considered necessary to assist their master in the next life.  In addition to jewellery, pottery and tools, excavators discovered pots filled with grape and pear piths, grains, wine and oil.  The fruit piths are a prominent part of the food offerings, and considered a necessary part of the funeral rites.

Other funeral objects discovered were rare amethyst bowls, ornamented wooden caskets with inlaid covers, glazed ceramic perfume bottles, and ornaments of gold, silver and semiprecious stones, and paste decorated with traditional mythological scenes typical of local art traditions.  Egyptian, Central Asian and Babylonian objects were also found at the site, indicating that from earliest of times Metsamor was on the crossroads of travel routes spanning the Ararat plain and linking Asia Minor with the North Caucasus and Central Asia.  By the early Iron Age Metsamor was one of the “royal” towns, an administrative-political and cultural centre in the Ararat Valley.

Y-chromosome J1


Y-chromosome J


Kushite - Nubians (Hamites)

Red & black Nubians

  • We suggest; Y-DNA E-M78 & J1



Thebes was inhabited from around 3200 BC. It was the eponymous capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. At this time it was still a small trading post while Memphis served as the royal residence of Old Kingdom pharaohs. - Thebes

Dynastic race

First Dynasty of Egypt, c. 3100 - 2900 BC

The Narmer Palette, thought to mark the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

White & red Crown

Arrowheads from Narmer’s tomb, Petrie 1905, Royal Tombs II, pl. IV.14.

By about 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. The Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles-including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect-became popular during this time.

Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process. Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt under his single rule.

According to Manetho, the first monarch of the unified Upper and Lower Egypt was Menes, who is now identified with Narmer. Indeed, Narmer is the earliest recorded First Dynasty monarch: he appears first on the king lists of Den and Qa'a. This shows that Narmer was recognized by the first dynasty kings as an important founding figure. Narmer is also the earliest king associated to the symbols of power over the two lands (see in particular the Narmer Palette, a votive cosmetic palette showing Narmer wearing the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt) and may therefore be the first king to achieve the unification. Consequently, the current consensus is that "Menes" and "Narmer" refer to the same person. Alternative theories hold that Narmer was the final king of the Naqada III period and Hor-Aha is to be identified with "Menes". - Narmer - Menes - First Dynasty of Egypt - Dynastic race theory

Copts - Ptah

Today 15% of the Sudanese Copts are R1b V88.

  • Preceded by: Kura-Araxes culture

  • Y-DNA R1b1a2 (R-V88)



Capital Thinis then Memphis. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. - Memphis

Sky Father - Ptah

Ptah - Pitaḥ - PT-Ah - Phater Yah


Narmer Palette

Novelties in Egypt:

  • Warfare/weapon
  • Slavery/mace
  • Human sacrifice

First Dynasty of Egypt


Mace - Slavery

Mace, Pontic–Caspian Steppe

Polished stone maces were another steppe artifact type that appeared in Tripolye B1 villages. The cat, unlike an ax, can not really be used for anything except cracking heads. It was a new weapon type and symbol of power in Old Europe, but maces had appeared across the steppes centuries earlier in DDII, Khvalynsk, and Varfolomievka contexts. - Old Europe Collapse

Mace - Buzdovan

Mace cannot really be used for anything except cracking heads

In ancient Ukraine, stone mace heads were first used nearly eight millennia ago. The others known were disc maces with oddly formed stones mounted perpendicularly to their handle. The Narmer Palette shows a king swinging a mace. See the articles on the Narmer Macehead and the Scorpion Macehead for examples of decorated maces inscribed with the names of kings.

  • Mace origins; Pontic–Caspian Steppe



Since the rise of the state some 5,000 years ago, military activity has occurred over much of the globe.

  • Warfare origins; Pontic–Caspian Steppe


Human sacrifice

Ancient Egypt (dynasti)

There may be evidence of retainer sacrifice in the early dynastic period at Abydos, when on the death of a King he would be accompanied with servants, and possibly high officials, who would continue to serve him in eternal life. The skeletons that were found had no obvious signs of trauma, leading to speculation that the giving up of life to serve the King may have been a voluntary act, possibly carried out in a drug induced state.

Retainer sacrifice was abandoned almost immediately after the end of the First Dynasty. - Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrifices

In Greek mythology Minos was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa. Every nine years, he made King Aegeus pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to Daedalus's creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by the Minotaur. After his death, Minos became a judge of the dead in the underworld.

Some scholars see a connection between Minos and the names of other ancient founder-kings, such as Menes of Egypt,

Mesopotamia (dynasti)

Retainer sacrifice was practised within the royal tombs of ancient Mesopotamia. Courtiers, guards, musicians, handmaidens and grooms were presumed to committed ritual suicide by taking poison. A new examination of skulls from the royal cemetery at Ur, discovered in Iraq almost a century ago, appears to support a more grisly interpretation of human sacrifices associated with elite burials in ancient Mesopotamia than had previously been recognized, say archaeologists. Palace attendants, as part of royal mortuary ritual, were not dosed with poison to meet death serenely. Instead, they were put to death by having a sharp instrument, such as a pike, driven into their heads.

Neolithic Europe (Dnieper-Donets culture)

There is archaeological evidence of human sacrifice in Neolithic to Eneolithic Europe. Retainer sacrifices seem to have been common in early Indo-European religion. For example, the Luhansk sacrificial site shows evidence of human sacrifice in the Yamna culture.


According to Roman sources, Celtic Druids engaged extensively in human sacrifice. According to Julius Caesar, the slaves and dependents of Gauls of rank would be burnt along with the body of their master as part of his funerary rites. He also describes how they built wicker figures that were filled with living humans and then burned. According to Cassius Dio, Boudica's forces impaled Roman captives during her rebellion against the Roman occupation, to the accompaniment of revelry and sacrifices in the sacred groves of Andate. Different gods reportedly required different kinds of sacrifices. Victims meant for Esus were hanged Tollund Man, those meant for Taranis immolated and those for Teutates drowned. Some, like the Lindow Man, may have gone to their deaths willingly.

Archaeological evidence from the British Isles seems to indicate that human sacrifice may have been practised, over times long pre-dating any contact with Rome. Human remains have been found at the foundations of structures from the Neolithic time to the Roman era, with injuries and in positions that argue for their being foundation sacrifices.

On the other hand, ritualised decapitation was a major religious and cultural practice which has found copious support in the archaeological record, including the numerous skulls discovered in Londinium's River Walbrook and the 12 headless corpses at the French late Iron Age sanctuary of Gournay-sur-Aronde. - Wicker man

Slavic peoples

In the 10th century, Persian explorer Ahmad ibn Rustah described funerary rites for the Rus' (Scandinavian Norsemen traders in northeastern Europe) including the sacrifice of a young female slave. Leo the Deacon describes prisoner sacrifice by the Rus' led by Sviatoslav during the Russo-Byzantine War "in accordance with their ancestral custom."

According to the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, prisoners of war were sacrificed to the supreme Slavic deity Perun. Sacrifices to pagan gods, along with paganism itself, were banned after the Baptism of Rus' by Prince Vladimir I in the 980s.

Archeological findings indicate that the practice may have been widespread, at least among slaves, judging from mass graves containing the cremated fragments of a number of different people.

Human sacrifice

  • Human sacrifice origins; Dnieper-Donets culture

Master of Animals

Gebel el-Arak Knife

Gudea - Master of Animals

"Gudea" - Master of Animals

[...] an archaic flint knife with an ivory handle of the greatest beauty. This is the masterpiece of predynastic sculpture [...] executed with remarkable finesse and elegance. This is a work of great detail [...] and the interest of what is represented extends even beyond the artistic value of the artefact. On one side is a hunting scene; on the other a scene of war or a raid. At the top of the hunting scene [...] the hunter wears a large Chaldean garment: he head is covered by a hat like that of our Gudea [...] and he grasps two lions standing against him.


Gutian people - Pontic–Caspian Steppe

Gudea - Gutian people - Master of Animals, Sumer

Master of Animals

Protodynastic Period Egypt - Gebel el-Arak Knife

Mace - Slavery - Warfare

Steppe mace

Danites - "Sherden"

Danites - "Sherden"


Dynastic Period Egypt - Master of Animals

Mace - Warfare - Slavery - Human sacrifice

Narmer - Master of Animals


Mycenae - Master of Animals

Warrior aristocracies

Mycenae  lion gate


Master of Animals today..

The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom - Coat of Arms of the Rothschild family

Master of Animals origins:

  • Yamna/Maykop culture
    • Kura-Araxes culture
      • Dynastic race - Egypt
        • Dynastic race - Sumer
          • Warrior aristocracies - Mycenae
            • European Monarchys

Kerma Culture, c. 2500 - 1500 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA T1a

Painting of an ancient Libyan or Kushite woman and infant being led by an Egyptian superintendent; from the east wall of the tomb BH14 of nomarch Khnumhotep I at Beni Hasan. Reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat I, early 12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom. - Kerma Culture

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