Ural Mountains

Y-DNA K2, N1, R1, R2

 
Shigir Idol c. 11000 BC

The idol was discovered on January 24, 1894 at a depth of 4 m (13 ft) in the peat bog of Shigir, on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals, approximately 100 km (62 mi) from Yekaterinburg. Investigations in this area had begun 40 years earlier after the discovery of a variety of prehistoric objects in an open-air gold mine.

It was extracted in several parts; professor D. I. Lobanov combined the main fragments to reconstitute a sculpture 2.80 m (9 ft 2 in) high.

In 1914, archaeologist Vladimir Tolmachev (ru) proposed a variant of this reconstruction by integrating the unused fragments. The reconstruction suggested that the original height of the statue was 5.3 metres.

Some of these fragments were later lost, so only Tolmachev's drawings of them remain.


Ural pictograms

 

Haplogroup K2

The Illyro-Germanic haplogroup I and the Semitic haplogroup J developed in the Near East from haplogroup IJ while the Turkic haplogroup Q and Eurasian haplogroup R1 developed in the Eurasian tundra and steppes from haplogroup K2. The relatives of the Eurasians also populated both Americas.

At the level of highly-derived subclades, K2 is almost universal in some modern Eurasian and Native American populations. However, the only living males reported to carry the basal paragroup K2 are indigenous Australians. Major studies published in 2014 and 2015 suggest that up to 27% of Aboriginal Australian males carry K-M526 and others carry a subclade of K2: another 27% probably have K2b1a1 (P60, P304, P308; also known as "S-P308") and perhaps 2.0% have Haplogroup M1 – also known as M-M4 (or "M-M186") and K2b1d1. - Haplogroup K2


Y-chromosome N1, R1, R2

 
Haplogroup N - R2

Origins Haplogroup N1

We suggest; Ural Mountains - Siberia

 

Kelteminar culture, c. 5500 - 3500 BC

Y-DNA N1

The Kelteminar people lived in huge houses (size 24m x 17m and height 10m), which housed the whole tribal community of about 100-120 people. They adorned themselves with beads made of shells. They manufactured stone axes and miniature trapezoidal flint arrowheads. For cooking, they used clay vessels produced without the potter's wheel. The Kelteminar economy was based on sedentary fishing and hunting. - Kelteminar culture

 

Samara culture, c. 5500 - 4800 BC

Y-DNA N1 & R1


Samara culture

Pottery

Pottery consists mainly of egg-shaped beakers with pronounced rims. They were not able to stand on a flat surface, suggesting that some method of supporting or carrying must have been in use, perhaps basketry or slings, for which the rims would have been a useful point of support. The carrier slung the pots over the shoulder or onto an animal. Decoration consists of circumferential motifs: lines, bands, zig-zags or wavy lines, incised, stabbed or impressed with a comb.

Sacrificial objects

The culture is characterized by the remains of animal sacrifice, which occur over most of the sites. There is no indisputable evidence of riding, but there were horse burials, the earliest in the Old World. Typically the head and hooves of cattle, sheep, and horses are placed in shallow bowls over the human grave, smothered with ochre. Some have seen the beginning of the horse sacrifice in these remains, but this interpretation has not been more definitely substantiated. We know that the Indo-Europeans sacrificed both animals and people, but so did many other cultures.

Archaeogenetics

A male buried at Lebyazhinka approximately 7,000 years BP and often referred to by scholars of archaeogenetics as the "Samara hunter-gatherer", appears to have carried the rare Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1* (R-L278*).

 

Pit-Comb Ware culture, c. 4200 - 2300 BC

Y-DNA N1


Pit–Comb Ware culture

Malmström et al. (2009) tested 19 ancient mtDNA sequences from Gotland, Sweden. They identified 8 individuals belonging haplogroup U4, 6 to haplogroup U5 (including three U5a), one to haplogroup V, one to haplogroup K, one to haplogroup T. No haplogroup could be attributed for the last 2 samples based on the HVR test alone (16311C).

Fino-Uralic languages

Fino-Uralic languages

 

Ceramic Mesolithic

In North-Eastern Europe, Siberia, and certain southern European and North African sites, a "ceramic Mesolithic" can be distinguished between 7000-3850 BC. Russian archaeologists prefer to describe such pottery-making cultures as Neolithic, even though farming is absent. This pottery-making Mesolithic culture can be found peripheral to the sedentary Neolithic cultures. It created a distinctive type of pottery, with point or knob base and flared rims, manufactured by methods not used by the Neolithic farmers. Though each area of Mesolithic ceramic developed an individual style, common features suggest a single point of origin. The earliest manifestation of this type of pottery may be in the region around Lake Baikal in Siberia. It appears in the Elshan or Yelshanka or Samara culture on the Volga in Russia c. 7000 BC, and from there spread via the Dnieper-Donets culture to the Narva culture of the Eastern Baltic. Spreading westward along the coastline it is found in the Ertebølle culture of Denmark and Ellerbek of Northern Germany, and the related Swifterbant culture of the Low Countries.


Turkic peoples

Y-DNA Q


Haplogroup Q


Turkic language

It is generally agreed that the first Turkic people lived in a region extending from Central Asia to Siberia, with the majority of them living in China historically. Historically they were established after the 6th century BCE. The earliest separate Turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu confederation about 200 BCE (contemporaneous with the Chinese Han Dynasty). Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu, Dingling and Tiele people. According to the Book of Wei, the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi (赤狄), the red Di people competing with the Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. Turkic tribes such as the Khazars and Pechenegs probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing the Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Empire in the 6th century. These were herdsmen and nobles who were searching for new pastures and wealth. The first mention of Turks was in a Chinese text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the Sogdians along the Silk Road. The first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name appears as a 6th-century reference to the word pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue. The Ashina clan migrated from Li-jien (modern Zhelai Zhai) to the Juan Juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevalent dynasty. The tribe were famed metalsmiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥 (tūjué). A century later their power had increased such that they conquered the Juan Juan and established the Gök Empire.

Origins Haplogroup Q

We suggest; Ural Mountains - Turkestan

 

Altaic languages


Altaic languages


Y-chromosome R1a, R1b & J

 
Y-chromosome R1a, R1b - Y-chromosome J

The Illyro-Germanic haplogroup I and the Semitic haplogroup J developed in the Near East from haplogroup IJ while the Turkic haplogroup Q and Eurasian haplogroup R1 developed in the Eurasian tundra and steppes from haplogroup K2. The relatives of the Eurasians also populated both Americas.

 

Yamna/Maykop culture

Y-DNA R1a, R1b & J


Dnieper Don Rivers

Y-chromosome R1a & R1b


Proto-Indo-European homeland

 

Gluten-related disorders

Celiac disease (CD) and NCGS are closely linked with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8, located on chromosome 6p21. Nearly all CD patients are NLA-DQ2/HLA-DQ8 positive, with 95% HLA-DQ2 and the rest usually HLA-DQ8 (which is carried by 30% of Caucasians). - Gluten-related disorders

 

Indo-European expansion

 

Dnieper-Donets culture. c. 5000 - 4200 BC

Y-DNA R1a & R1b

The physical remains recovered from graves have been described as typically Europoid. They are predominantly characterized as late Cro-Magnons with more massive and robust features than the gracile Mediterranean peoples of the Balkan Neolithic. - Dnieper–Donets culture

  • Human sacrifice (altar-priest)
  • Ritual cannibalism

 

Yamna culture, c. 3500 BC - 2300 BC

Y-DNA R1a, R1b & J


Yamna culture

The Yamna culture, is a late copper age/early Bronze Age culture of the Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th–23rd centuries B.C.

 The Pontic steppe is the vast steppeland (Grasslands) stretching from the north of the Black Sea, as far as the east of the Caspian Sea, from central Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan. The area corresponds to Scythia and Sarmatia of Classical antiquity, and forms part of the larger Eurasian steppe. Across several millennia the steppe was used by numerous tribes of nomadic horsemen, many of which went on to conquer lands in the settled regions of Europe and in western and southern Asia.

The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few hillforts. Characteristic for the culture are the inhumations in kurgans (tumuli) in pit graves with the dead body placed in a supine position with bent knees. The bodies were covered in ochre. Multiple graves have been found in these kurgans, often as later insertions.

Significantly, animal grave offerings were made (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and horse), a feature associated with both Proto-Indo-Europeans (including Proto-Indo-Iranians). The recently discovered Luhansk sacrificial site has been described as a hill sanctuary where human sacrifice was practiced.

Archaeogenetics

Three such hunter-gathering individuals of the male sex have had their DNA results published. Each was found to belong to a different Y-DNA haplogroup: R1a, R1b, and J

west: Catacomb culture;
east: Poltavka culture, Srubna culture;
north: Corded Ware culture (derived from Yamna culture)

  • Warfare/weapon
  • Slavery/mace

Kamyana Mohyla (stone tomb)

   
Kamyana Mohyla - Moloch

Kamyana Mohyla (stone tomb) is an archaeological site in the Molochna River. The site encompasses a group of isolated blocks of sandstone, up to twelve meters in height, scattered around an area of some 3000 square meters. No traces of ancient human settlement have been discovered in the vicinity, leading many scholars to believe that the hill served as a remote sanctuary. Faint traces of red paint remain on parts of the surface. Scholars have been unable to agree whether the petroglyphs date from Mesolithic or Neolithic. The latter dating is more popular, although the presumed depiction of a mammoth in one of the caves seems to favour the former date.

Molochna River - Moloch

 

Merheleva Ridge

Merheleva Ridge site was built in about 4000 BC, corresponding to the Dnieper-Donets or early Yamna culture.

The site is believed to be a complex of temples and sacrificial altars topping a hill with sides sculpted into steps.

Archaeologists have confirmed that evidence of graves has been found at the Luhansk site, which they believe to have been the result of human sacrifice, rather than due to its use as a burial ground.

According to The Guardian, remains of sacrifice victims, ashes and ceramics have been found at the site, but no jewellery or treasure. The complex has a base area of three-quarters of a square mile, is estimated to be 60 metres (192 ft) high, and was probably used for 2,000 years.

In Kurgan No. 4, three graves of the Berezhnovsko-Maevskaya group of the Late Bronze Age Srubna culture were found above three graves of the Early Bronze Age Catacomb culture, with 13 graves and sacrificial pits. One of the skulls found was dated to ca. 3000 BC. Four stone statues were found near the graves.


Merheleva Ridge

 

Proto-Indo-European religion

They practiced a polytheistic religion centered on sacrificial rites, probably administered by a class of priests.

Animals were slaughtered (*gʷʰn̥tós) and dedicated to the gods (*déiwos) in the hope of winning their favour. The king as the high priest would have been the central figure in establishing favourable relations with the gods.

The Kurgan hypothesis suggests burials in barrows or tomb chambers. Important leaders would have been buried with their belongings, and also with members of their household or wives (sati). The practice of human sacrifice is inferred from the Luhansk sacrificial site.


Sredny Stog culture, c. 5th millennium BC

Y-DNA J & R1b

The Sredny Stog culture seems to have had contact with the agricultural Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the west and was a contemporary of the Khvalynsk culture.

Sredny Stog culture should be considered as an areal term, with at least four distinct cultural elements co-existing inside the same geographical area.

The culture ended at around 3500 BC, when the Yamna culture expanded westward replacing Sredny Stog, and coming into direct contact with the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the western Ukraine.- Sredny Stog culture

 

 

 

Maykop culture, c. 3700 - 3000 BC

Y-DNA G2a, J & R1b


Maykop culture


Golden bull figurine


The Bronze Age and the Indo-European migrations - Eupedia

The origin of the Indo-European peoples is a subject that has caused much ink to flow among archaeologists and historians. Their Urheimat (original homeland) has been speculated to lie in Anatolia, around the Caucasus, in Iran, in India, in Central Asia, in Russia, or even in Scandinavia. Thanks to Paleogenetics we now know that these people expanded during the Late Copper and Early Bronze Age from the Pontic Steppe to the North of the Black Sea and the Caucasus. There seems to have been two distinct, though closely related, groups of tribes speaking the Proto-Indo-European language, from which descend almost all the European languages today (apart from Basque, Hungarian, Estonian, Finnish and Sami) as well as Armenian, Kurdish, Persian and most North Indian languages. Tribes belonging mainly to the paternal haplogroup R1a reportedly occupied the North of the steppe (forest-steppe and tundra), while in the South (open steppe) were nomadic cow herders belonging mainly to haplogroup R1b.

Their migration both westward to Europe and eastward to Central and South Asia makes it easy to infer which mtDNA haplogroups they carried (=> see also Identifying the original Indo-European mtDNA from isolated settlements). The best matches for R1a are C4a, H1b, H1c, H2a1, H6, H11, K1b1b, K1c, K2b, T1a1a1, T2a1b1, T2b2, T2b4, U2e, U4, U5a1a, W, and several I subclades.

The R1b branch would have originated in eastern Anatolia and/or northern Mesopotamia/Syria during the Early Neolithic period, where they probably domesticated cattle and became primarily cattle herders. Then would have migrated to the western part of the Iranian plateau, crossed the Caucasus to the Pontic Steppe in search for pasture for their cattle, where they mixed to some extent with I2a2 and R1a tribes that inhabited those lands. The maternal lineages of these Near Eastern R1b people would have included haplogroups H5a, H6, H8, H15, I1a1, J1b1a, K1a3, K2a6, U5, and some V subclades (like V15).

MtDNA haplogroups H4 has not been found in Europe before the Late Chalcolithic (Corded Ware culture) and the Early Bronze Age (Unetice culture) and might have been brought by the Indo-Europeans. Likewise, H6 is absent from all Mesolithic or Neolithic samples, and its strong presence in the North Caucasus and Central Asia supports an Indo-European connection.

 

Y-DNA based studies

A 2010 study of modern genetic diversity suggested that the lineage R1b1b2 (R-M269), like E1b1b or J lineages, spread together with farming from the Near East. Prior archaeological and metrological studies had arrived at similar conclusions in support of the migrationist model. By this model, 80% of European Y chromosomes descend from incoming farmers, and most mtDNA from hunter-gatherers.

However, in 2011, a study has argued there to be serious flaws in the above proposed model, denouncing the perceived overgeneralization inherit in the studies of Baleresque 2010. Furthermore, Busby et al. 2012 point out "For this haplogroup to be so ubiquitous, the population carrying R1b-S127 would have displaced most of the populations present in western Europe after the Neolithic agricultural transition". Clearly common sense dictates that this did not happen. Also they go on to show that within the European specific R1b-M269 sub-lineage, defined by SNP S127, there exists distinct sub-haplogroups and at this level there exists several "geographically localized pockets, with individual R1b-M269 sub- haplogroups dominating". Their conclusions were that it is likely that R1b-S127 was already present in native European populations and grew into several geographically distinct sub-lineages across Europe before Neolithic expansion occurred.

In 2015, a thorough study by Haak et al.about ancient DNA, concluded, however, that both R1a and R1b very likely spread into Europe from the Pontic-Caspian steppe after 3,000 BCE. There was a paucity of haplogroup R1b (or any other variant of R1) in European population samples predating the Bronze Age, with only one of the 70 individuals from Mesolithic and Neolithic Europe belonging to haplogroup R1. Among the analyzed male samples taken from Yamna culture sites, however, all possessed haplogroup R1b. Analysis of modern Europeans' autosomal DNA also gives support to a large population displacement from the steppe into Europe.


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